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Technical Program Live Schedule

  • Technical Streams

    • maintenance, engineering and reliability best practices

      excellence in maintenance management

      Session chair : Ted Knight

      • Mon 14:00 - 14:25

        1935: digital innovations in asset management for mining

        Author/Presenter: Fabio Mielli, Javier Orellana, | Room: 109

        Mining operations invest billions every year in large, expensive assets such as haul trucks, loaders, conveyors, crushers, mills, and flotation cells, but if they are not fully utilized due to unplanned downtime or inefficiency, the resulting production losses, compromised product quality and costly repairs will have a significant financial impact on the business. New innovations such as condition-based monitoring, predictive analytics, pattern recognition and cognitive technologies can now let mining companies truly maximize the ROI of critical assets and implement a far more proactive maintenance strategy that will create greater profit from every ton or ounce extracted and processed. This paper will address these trends and new technologies for better asset management and its role in operational excellence and improved profitability.

      • Mon 14:25 - 14:50

        2120: shutdown/turnaround industry best practices and emerging trends

        Author/Presenter: Alan Cajueiro, | Room: 109

        Plant shutdowns are resource-intensive events that are intended to achieve safety, cost and schedule targets. However, these complex events are not always successful across Industry due to numerous factors that arise during planning, execution, and start-up. In order to achieve optimal shutdown outcomes, readiness must be quantified and measured early in planning, and the planning team must be disciplined in its adherence to a work process that is tailored to the requirements of the event. Finally, asset leadership must champion and drive the preparation and remove roadblocks to successful planning. This paper presents key Industry best practices that have evolved over the past fifteen years and their contribution to increased shutdown predictability and competitiveness. Emerging trends that the leading players are following to stand out from their peers are also presented.

      • Mon 14:50 - 15:15

        2014: metso maintenance solution (mms) as a central management system: evolving maintenance management across multiple cites

        Author/Presenter: Guadalupe Rodriguez, | Room: 109

        Production throughput increased by +23%, preventative maintenance compliance improved by +37% and +12% more equipment availability are results worth examining in detail. CMMS, a standard software used within the mining and aggregates industries, has greater potential when used as part of a unique solution to a complex problem. In this presentation, we demonstrate how a CMMS system can be the sole solution to integrating elements such as spare parts inventory, maintenance planning, maintenance resources allocation and reporting into a cohesive maintenance strategy for multiple sites. Using a challenge-solution-results structure, we explain how a Metso client with 62 site locations across vast distances across India achieves an integrated maintenance process. Imperative to the solution is the process for centralizing 2400 assets, 2700 maintenance tasks, and 400 standard procedures. It can be summarized in three steps: creating a work model, building a maintenance framework and creating a central maintenance organization to facilitate organized communication. With Metso Maintenance Solution (MMS) as a Central Management System, we are able to share: technical information, standardized procedures, common spares, wears and resources amongst different sites, and compare maintenance operation parameters in a single place. This will have a major impact on inventory and labor costs, maintenance quality, and equipment availability. By following this methodology and implementing a new maintenance strategy, equipment availability will increase, ensuring that all resources are used in an optimal manner. These advanced methods for control, monitoring, reporting and managing maintenance events in real time are changing the mining industry in terms of managing maintenance at multiple sites.

      • Mon 15:15 - 15:40

        2183: applying an asset management approach to mining projects using reliability decision making tools to sustain operational success

        Author/Presenter: Nestor Deza, Mehtab Gill, Adi Dhora, | Room: 109

        Asset Management refers to the systematic process of designing, operating, maintaining, upgrading, and disposing of assets cost-effectively. The success of any project lies in implementing this lifecycle mindset into the early stages of design. The design of a typical project is dependant on two key stakeholders: the ‘Project’ responsible for optimizing the Capital Expenditure and the ‘Owner’ responsible for ensuring a safely operable and maintainable plant. Maintaining a balance between the objectives of these stakeholders is critical in achieiving the committed NPV (Net Present Value). This paper discusses the implementation of an integrated framework to bridge the gap between the objectives during the design of the project and the operation of the plant. The framework brings forth tactical safety, operational and maintenance requirements of the assets at site into the early stages of the design via the use of Asset Criticality Assessments, FMECAs (Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis) and the development of Asset Management Strategies and Plans. These tools, when used effectively, help identify the needs of the asset once it becomes operational and ensures that they are built into its design. These tools are supplemented by effective reliability modelling (RAM Modelling) of the project which allows for identification of key reliability and availability opportunities. A successful RAM model is an invaluable tool to make design decisions as it allows for the quanitification of value opportunities in terms of project NPV rather than poor indicators of overall value such as CapEx or other qualititative measures. These tools, when used in an integrated fashion, ensure a more efficient and flexible design as well as congruence between various project deliverables such as the Process Flow Diagrams, design criteria, vendor procurement packages and the 3D layout and have enabled value of more than $200M in NPV over the lifecycle of the project.

      • Mon 15:40 - 16:05

        4254: using technology to implement an effective, data-driven structural maintenance strategy

        Author/Presenter: Devin Hagardt, Trent Johnson, Steven Yee, | Room: 109

        Inspections are the basis of an effective structural maintenance strategy, but the data gathering, analysis, and reporting can be challenging and time-consuming. Maintenance personnel require detailed reports to prioritize and plan structural maintenance activities, while managers need higher-level summaries to make decisions about resource allocation, budgeting, and capital planning. CWA’s approach to structural inspections utilizes the latest technology to provide seamless and efficient delivery and analysis of inspection data. Findings are recorded and uploaded from the inspecting engineer’s smartphone to a custom cloud application, from which they can flow into online inspection reports, structural condition summary reports, KPIs, and condition metrics. This data can be integrated into the client’s existing maintenance system, enabling maintenance personnel to focus less on administration and more on planning and decision making. This data-driven approach must be combined with thorough identification, definition, and assessment of equipment and infrastructure areas, and underpinned by regular inspections executed by qualified and experienced personnel. Implemented together, these elements allow for maintenance and capital spending to be targeted for maximum effectiveness while safeguarding against unexpected structural failures.

      mine hoisting innovation

      Session chair : Dick McIvor

      • Tue 08:30 - 08:55

        4389: mine shaft conveyance safety brake

        Author/Presenter: Todd Kennedy, | Room: 109

        FLSmidth is pleased to present our recent patent pending innovation that provides a means of “catching” a free falling cage on steel guides with predictable results. As with any safety device, its purpose must be to improve the safety and wellbeing of the user. In this case, we developed a safety catch that will operate if a cage becomes disconnected from its hoisting rope in a manner which is positive, secure, and reliable, and with characteristics that cause the rate of deceleration to be regulated to within prescribed parameters. This presentation covers topics including regulated and self-prescribed design criteria, a functional description of the system, main system components and how they interact, our test program, and some performance comparisons to traditional safety dogs. Certain mining regulations prescribe stringent deceleration performance requirements for safety dogs. Although these regulations were written around safety dogs operating on timber guides, we chose to use them as guiding criterion that would serve well under steel guide conditions where using traditional safety dogs is not possible. We added many other minimum requirements. For example, our system is purely mechanical, easily maintained and tested, and includes redundancies that help assure reliability in a mine shaft environment. We will review how the system “locks” onto the shaft guides without any intentional slip between the system and the guides. With this accomplished the kinetic energy of the free falling cage is absorbed primarily by a set of brake calipers operating on linear brake paths which are in turn fixed to the cage. The result is controlled deceleration and arrestment of the cage. A benefit not previously achieved with safety dog technology is that deceleration rates remain within prescribed limits regardless of cage load. Therefore, excessively high deceleration rates when a single passenger is being transported are avoided. The primary system elements include a triggering mechanism, guide clamps, brake calipers and brake paths. Because all of these components are “engineered” components with no field adjustable attributes, performance is predictable and repeatable. Some test data will be shared and system limitations will be noted.

      • Tue 08:55 - 09:20

        4382: synthetic hoist rope trial and non-destructive testing at goldex

        Author/Presenter: Elizabeth Huntley, | Room: 109

        Light weight high performance synthetic ropes can offer dramatic benefits for mine hoisting. An aramid rope has the same strength as standard wire rope but with only 20% of the weight. The weight savings could translate to increased payload and/or depth. An aramid hoist rope was installed at Agnico-Eagle Goldex shaft #1 for ten months. The rope was monitored with several NDT methods to determine if in-situ evaluation is practical and accurate. Results and lessens learned from the installation evaluate the viability of aramid rope for mine hoisting.

      • Tue 09:20 - 09:45

        4390: high strength light weight hybrid ropes for mining applications

        Author/Presenter: Pengzhu Wang, | Room: 109

        Wire ropes are widely used in mining applications. In mining hoist systems, the self-weight of wire ropes not only reduces operational efficiency but also limits the maximum practical depth that shafts can operate including setting the transition from friction to drum winders. Due to the huge obstacles required to overcome for fiber ropes, hybrid ropes are at present the most practical solution for underground mining hoists to reduce the self-weight of wire rope by increasing strength to weight ratio. Hybrid ropes combine the high strength and robustness of steel wire ropes with the light weight high fatigue performance of fiber yarns used as a tensile load bearing element. Hybrid ropes can operate on existing systems utilizing existing termination methods and discard criteria. This paper starts with a brief introduction of the portfolio of rope products and services BBRG (Bridon Bekaert Ropes Group) offers to the mining industry followed by a report of the opportunities that can be presented through utilization of hybrid rope technology. We will explore the benefit of increased strength to weight ratio combined with performance enhancement in both detailed lab testing evaluation and case study examples of hybrid ropes in mining applications including one of the world deepest gold mines. The last section of the paper concludes with remarks and next steps required to realize the benefits this technology offers to the industry.

      • Tue 09:45 - 10:10

        4391: mine hoist motor control

        Author/Presenter: Brian Benham, | Room: 109

        Early mine hoists motors were speed controlled by applied motor voltage and depended on the motor characteristics to operate at the desired speed. Most hoists were driven by direct current motors, either direct connected or driven through reduction gears. The motor D.C. power was supplied by motor generator sets converting the incoming A.C power to D.C. out power. Advances in solid state technology has replaced the M.G. set drives to solid state Thyristor Armature Supplies for D.C. motors and solid state variable frequency supplies for A.C. motors. The motor drive manufacturer’s developed feedback speed regulators to control the hoist motor speed. This presentation will investigate the problems encountered with mine hoist feedback speed regulation and explain the issues with controlling mine hoist speed.

      all electric mine

      Session chair : Michelle Levesque

      • Tue 10:30 - 10:55

        4375: borden gold: canada's first all electric underground mine

        Author/Presenter: John Mullally, | Room: 109

        The elimination of diesel vehicles in favour of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) at Goldcorp’s Borden Gold mine is truly transformational for the mining industry in Ontario, Canada and beyond. This is the ‘Mine of the Future’; it will be the very first mine in the world designed for an all BEV fleet and will position Goldcorp, Ontario and Canada as leaders in the adoption, deployment and provider of supplies and services for near commercialized clean technologies in natural resource development. As an early adopter, this project will tip the scale to initiate a major adoption of BEVs in mining and other sectors in Ontario. By adopting an all Battery Electric Vehicle fleet, Goldcorp will reduce annual GHG emissions by 6,600 tons or a 71% reduction over a baseline mine, largely by eliminating the use of 1.6 million litres of diesel fuel for our underground vehicles. Significant reductions are also achieved due to a decrease in electricity required for ventilation needed to clear the mine of diesel emissions (33,000 megawatt hours per year) and a corresponding decrease in propane required to heat the ventilation (1.3 million liters of propane per year). Clean technology for underground mining drastically improves health and safety performance. It means workers will not be exposed to harmful air pollutants from diesel like NO2 or particulate matter.

      • Tue 10:55 - 11:20

        2009: going from theoretical to actual with battery electric propulsion in underground mining

        Author/Presenter: Adam Howse, Jeff Anderson, | Room: 109

        Goldcorp’s Borden Gold project in northern Ontario is slated to be the world’s first all-electric underground hard rock mine by the time it reaches production stage in 2018. With construction currently underway, the mine of the future – low carbon, diesel fine particulate removed, and reduced ventilation and fleet maintenance costs – is here, now. This presentation by MacLean Engineering will focus on mobile fleet operating and total-cost-of-ownership (TCO) data accumulated to date. MacLean delivered five battery powered units to the Borden project in early 2017, and currently has two other battery electric rock bolters working underground in hard rock mines in Ontario, as well as one battery electric boom truck that has undergone two ramp trials to date, so by the time of the CIM conference in May 2018, there will be substantial performance data and total cost of ownership data to share. To that point, the sharing of EV fleet learnings at the annual CIM conference is an opportunity to help advance industry awareness and start to fill in the gaps of knowledge upon so battery power commercialization can be realized more rapidly. The sharing of battery system performance and TCO assumptions borne out by real-world, underground data is a critical part of advancing the adoption of electric vehicle propulsion systems across the underground mining industry.

      • Tue 11:20 - 11:45

        4216: infield benchmarking results on electric battery-powered underground mining equipment

        Author/Presenter: Ramy Kamaneh, | Room: 109

        We are devoted to bringing sustainable development technology to the Mining Industry by developing, evaluating, benchmarking, improving, and testing electric battery powered mining equipment, and related battery and charger components. Our objectives are to demystify the technical, operational and economic viability of battery-powered equipment as an alternative to widely-used machines powered by internal combustion engines. In addition, these testings results will provide indispensable data to establish conclusions on battery-powered vehicles to validate if they can match or even surpass operational capabilities of their diesel counterparts. The presentation will outline the project objectives, the methodology, and the proposed outcomes. Opportunities and collaborations will also be discussed.

      • Tue 11:45 - 12:10

        4365: gmsg recommended practices for battery electric vehicles in underground mining: the 2nd edition!

        Author/Presenter: David Sanguinetti, | Room: 109

        The 1st edition of the Global Mining Standards and Guidelines Group’s Guideline for BEV’s in the underground was published just prior to CIM’s 2017 annual conference. It was an immediate success, with people from a cross-section of industry adopting and using it as a learning tool, to shape plans, to drive innovation, and to ease the operator-supplier relationship. Its rapid adoption also led to requests for further information to be included, prompting GMSG and the Canada Mining Innovation Council to launch the second edition. This presentation will highlight some of the feedback on the first edition and give a sneak peak at the new content for the second edition.

      best practices in reliability & safety

      Session chair : Tom Shumka

      • Tue 14:00 - 14:25

        1911: reliable assets is driving your business results.

        Author/Presenter: ALAIN PELLEGRINO, | Room: 109

        Asset-intensive industries such as mining facilities, need predictable production at the lowest sustainable cost. The impact of reliable assets on the business is well known and companies that have a comprehensive reliability program stand out from others with lower maintenance costs and higher assets availability. During this presentation we will look at how to compare your current performance against your peers in the industry. What are the financial benefits of improving reliability of your assets and how the leaders in the mining industry are achieving those results, by leveraging predictive technologies to monitor the health of their critical assets.

      • Tue 14:25 - 14:50

        2012: when every minute counts: case review- reliability engineering techniques used for improving shutdown times for multiple gyratory crushers and mill relinings

        Author/Presenter: Edwin Gutierrez, | Room: 109

        During periods of planned maintenance, shutdowns need to proceed quickly and efficiently with every minute of additional downtime carrying heavy costs. Having the right tools, crews and procedures all play a part in ensuring an efficient shutdown process. Once these elements are all working together smoothly, are there other methods to continuously improve the process? Reliability Engineering (RE) brings additional tools and methodologies to the table in order to look at a shutdown in different ways. One particular Reliability Engineering tool involves the use of Time and Motion studies to record and analyze how all these elements come together during an actual shutdown. Implementing the Time-Lapse technique involves capturing video sequences and then segmenting them into shorter clips that highlight how individual tasks are performed. This method looks at tasks and elements such as relining procedures, parts management, site layout and actual workflows in order to analyze the entire process. Expert analysis of the video using specialized software programs can lead to the identification of important improvement opportunities. This presentation will showcase multiple success cases where RE techniques have made a significant impact on improving shutdown performance and forecasting next planned downtime for crusher and mill relining

      • Tue 14:50 - 15:15

        1937: operational excellence – practical examples of advanced technologies improving process and assets in the mining industry

        Author/Presenter: Fabio Mielli, Javier Orellana, | Room: 109

        In today’s environment, mining companies are faced with volatile market swings and ever increasing operating constraints. To respond to these challenges companies are driven to optimize and adapt to improve performance which will affect positively to their bottom line. Any small process and assets improvement can bring major cost benefits to any industrial operation and consequently reduce the cost per ton and in the other hand it is not a surprise that any failures of a major asset of equipment can drive to disastrous consequences The objective of this paper is to address operation excellence narrowed down in two areas: Process excellence and Assets excellence, giving a brief explanation what entails these areas, their challenges and new technologies to address them.

      • Tue 15:15 - 15:40

        1950: using virtual/augmented reality to improve safety, reliability, and profitability across the enterprise

        Author/Presenter: Livia Wiley, | Room: 109

        As mines become more connected, technology is needed to address the many challenges that arise—high reliability requirements (uptime & speed, hardware/software, brain drain, shutdown costs), cybersecurity, and the handling of big data. And although the market has plenty of vendors that can connect and collect data, analyzing and turning it into actionable intelligence is much more difficult. Being able to deliver information to the right people in the right format to make informed decisions is key. The challenge isn’t getting data, but rather, gaining insight – in real time. This session will demonstrate how virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) fit into the mining ecosystem—from training in a VR classroom to using AR to execute regular maintenance tasks, run through safety scenarios, and predict equipment failures before they happen. Several customer case studies will be shown to demonstrate the impact these cutting-edge technologies have on safety and profitability across the enterprise. A relatively small investment in a VR/AR solution can save hundreds of thousands or millions of dollars while supporting knowledge transfer of best practices, increasing efficiency, and reducing costly errors or maintenance.

      • Tue 15:40 - 16:05

        1909: convergent quantitative cyber risk assessment to optimize enterprise reliability

        Author/Presenter: Franco Oboni, Cesar Oboni, | Room: 109

        This paper shows a case history of convergent quantitative prioritized risk assessment used as the basis for rational risk based decision making. The goal is to optimize mitigative investments and increase reliability through a mining portfolio, including cyber-risks in the best possible way. Information technology (IT) , Internet of Things (IoT), and spreading connectivity are bringing very significant benefits to mining, but increase the mining industry’s exposure to cyber criminals and possibly terrorists. This phenomenon is general and occurs in every single industrial, infrastructural and service space, not only in cyber risks in mining. During the last decade the techniques and tools of cyber attacks have become more sophisticated, the distinctions between actors and threats have become blurred and attack prospects more worrying. Reportedly at least one major mining company has been the target of a massive hack, but serious infrastructural damages have only seldom been inflicted, and not in mining (as far as we know), but in other industries. Indeed, given the rapid escalation in the number and sophistication of cyber attacks, infrastructural damages are to be expected “any time”. Any infrastructural damage, especially those with environmental consequences or harm to people, will lead to significant crisis potential, reputational damages and legal consequences. Cyber risks in mining companies are a reality that cannot be ignored. The wide spectrum of threats and potential consequences spanning across the various functions of a mining company, from management to production and logistics, show that siloed approaches do not work, integrative one are slightly better and, finally, convergent approaches offer an optimum to increase reliability while mitigating risks. It has been shown that broad spectrum protection investments and particularly poorly prioritized ones are not efficient as oftentimes they are limited in scope by other operational requirements. So it is simply not possible to protect each property from each threat. The cyberdefense must be rooted on intelligence based on convergent prioritized Risk Management and not on standardized audits and practice of indolent regulations, written a priori, or the biased advice of fear monger solutions sellers. Encouraging information reports that, recently and in some cases, two-thirds of the overall capex on the cyber risk mitigation strategies was non-technology driven. The idea that cyber risk is not only an IT issue is finally sinking. This, however, does not necessarily mean the capex is allotted in the most efficient way at all, unless proper prioritization was performed and silo-culture is replaced by a “horizontal” thinking. We note that all of the above does not necessarily mean that cyber risks were integrated in the ERM program. Cyber risks in mining companies are a reality and the deployment of an adequate siloes-busting convergent analysis methodology will eliminate capex squandering and increase overall enterprise reliability. Risk Assessments offers support for operational decisions and protection (mitigation), provided that we want to define the level of acceptable risk reduction /mitigation and that we formulate measurable performance targets to achieve.

      innovations in energy

      Session chair : Agus Sasmito

      • Wed 08:30 - 08:55

        2094: improving energy performance in the mining sector using the nrcan benchmarking program

        Author/Presenter: Michelle Levesque, | Room: 109

        Reduced energy consumption results both in lower operating costs and carbon emissions, thus improving the economic and environmental performance of an operation. Increased energy management efforts in the mining industry may be further spurred by rising energy costs and carbon emission programs. A benchmarking program can be effective for assessing and improving energy performance. External benchmarking can be used to compare performance against peers, which can lead to identification of opportunities for improvement. Conversely, internal benchmarking can serve to assess an organization’s performance over time thus demonstrating improvement or identifying declining performance. However, in both cases, proper data are necessary to ensure a fair and meaningful comparison; for mines, energy consumption and production data are not sufficient. Although benchmarking programs have been established for various sectors, they are either not applicable to the mining industry, insufficient, or outdated. Thus a comprehensive energy benchmarking program for the mining sector has been developed by NRCan in collaboration with industry stakeholders. An overview of this program will be provided and examples will be presented to illustrate how this platform can be used to support energy management in the mining sector.

      • Wed 08:55 - 09:20

        2033: performance review of lake cooling systems; a renewable energy alternative solution for conventional refrigeration plants

        Author/Presenter: ALI KUYUK, SEYED ALI MADISEH, | Room: 109

        Underground mining operations are highly energy-intensive and technologically complicated. Additionally, modern mining industry is constantly faced by deeper and more complex orebodies. These new challenges usually yield increasingly higher demands on infrastructure, power and capital/operating costs. If not tackled innovatively, these challenges can become a financial liability. Deep underground mine ventilation, with elevated energy and capital costs, requires novel engineering solutions. However, in such operations, heat impact of auto-compression, strata and mine machinery forces companies to deploy massive cooling plants costing millions of dollars. An alternative solution can be sought by discarding mine heat into a lake/river, provided that the water source is well-sized, low-temperature and close to the mine site. This study investigates the feasibility of implementation of a lake geothermal cooling system in a real-life anonymous Canadian mine. It underlines that significant cost/energy savings can be achieved by employing a surface water system, rather than a conventional cooling plant. This preliminary design work shows that a lake cooling system saves up to CAD $ 12.3 M CAPEX and CAD $ 1.7 M/year OPEX comparing to a similar capacity conventional cooling plant. This study also highlights the potential reductions in carbon footprint of a typical Canadian deep mining operation.

      • Wed 09:20 - 09:45

        1907: measuring compliance of mining truck-shovel fleet in a dynamic and uncertain environment

        Author/Presenter: Burak Ozdemir, Mustafa Kumral, | Room: 109

        The match factor (MF) is a simple criterion used to measure truck-shovel compatibility and is the function of the number of trucks and shovels, truck cycle time and shovel loading time. Current formula of MF ignores random nature of shovel and truck availabilities, and truck cycle and shovel loading time. Furthermore, MF dynamically fluctuates over the time due to variation in road conditions, climate, operator habits and possibilities of the equipment failures. The changing MF value should be monitored and analyzed carefully. Otherwise, it can cause opportunity cost due to the truck queues or shovel idle time. In this research, the risk associated with the uncertainties in MF is assessed with a novel approach in which the probable realizations of number of available equipment are generated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulation (MCMS) and the probable realizations of the shovel loading time and truck cycle time are generated by Ordinary Monte Carlo Simulation (OMCS). Hence, the fluctuations in MF over time is quantified to assist maintenance management and production planning in mining operations by incorporating the reliability of the equipment in the MF equation. To see the performance the proposed approach, a case study was carried out on a mining fleet. The results showed that the proposed technique is a useful tool to quantify the risk associated with deviations from planned production targets.

      • Wed 09:45 - 10:10

        4235: is mining a renewable energy industry?

        Author/Presenter: Brian Yates, | Room: 109

        It takes up to 4 times more copper to build an electric car than a conventional car and 630 kg of steelmaking coal. While at first glance the mining industry may not seem a natural partner to the clean energy industry, in fact the two industries are recognizing important synergies related to the use of renewables at mine sites, the growing demand for mined materials in electric vehicles, and the value of gaining social license for mines through supporting the reduction of carbon emissions. This presentation will present examples from projects and companies that underscore the important, positive, shift in the mining industry to a clean energy future.

    • mining projects development

      transportation infrastructure and construction materials in remote areas

      Session chair : Todd Strynadka

      • Mon 14:00 - 14:25

        1938: emulsions for dust control management for mine roads and tailings

        Author/Presenter: Todd Strynadka, | Room: 110

        Large amounts of dust on a road surface can cause many problems, such as reduced visibility, poor air quality and safety concerns. Mining companies, regulators and public are interested in not only managing dust but also measurement and reporting aspect of the process. For example, KGHM’s Ajax mine has a goal of attaining more than 90% dust mitigation and has committed to reporting requirements for the same. Thought it is recognized that most of the dust comes off the haul roads, dust from tailings facility is also significant contributor to the dust formation, especially during the later years of the mine life. As a means to control dust, water is sprayed over unsealed roads on a regular basis. In dry and hot climates this can become a continuous operation because the effectiveness is dramatically reduced when the water evaporates. Water in a dry and arid region like Kamloops, is a scarce commodity and spraying water continuously increase water usage and water running costs. A cost effective way to control and manage dust emissions, together with reducing equipment and labor costs and water consumption is to use suitable dust palliatives. This paper looks at use of asphalt emulsions to manage, measure and report on dust control on mine sites. Asphalt emulsions penetrate the graded surfaces to keep dust and gravel in place. The paper will also look at various dust concentration measurement system that makes use of the most modern technology available to measure dust concentrations along with wind speed and direction in real time. The paper will also touch upon the use of emulsions for low-volume roads and to spray on the tailings beaches for dust control and revegetation purposes. Both local and international case-studies will be presented, including Haldi Lake Road Emulsion Stabilization in Prince George, Research done on use of Emulsions for Dust management on tailing beaches, case studies on use of Emulsions in a dry and arid environment like Africa.

      • Mon 14:25 - 14:50

        2029: technical and economic analysis of three approaches for construction of mine haulage roads on canadian peatlands

        Author/Presenter: Babak Mofid, Hani Ghiabi, Kalie Smith, | Room: 110

        Peatlands cover 12% of Canadian land area and are in regions containing significant quantities of valuable mineral resources (e.g. Northern Ontario Ring of Fire). Developing these areas would be a tremendous economic benefit for Canada, however their development has remained slow due to lacking infrastructure in remote peatland locations. In this paper, three approaches are analyzed for constructing road embankments on peat for mine haulage purposes. These include: 1) using geosynthetic reinforcement, 2) excavation of peat and replacement with more suitable base and sub-base materials, and 3) pre-loading the peat. A stratigraphic model with a specific peat depth is developed using averaged or common peat parameters. Using this model, a technical analysis is completed using a finite element modelling software (i.e. RS2-Phase 2). The technical analysis provides the design and material quantities required in order for each approach to be serviceable, or to achieve an acceptable level of differential settlement. These material quantities are then used in an economic analysis to estimate the construction costs, to assess the potential risks of each approach, and to determine the most cost-effective construction method. The results of this paper provide a basis for future development of Canadian peatlands, including the Ring of Fire.

      • Mon 14:50 - 15:15

        2170: buoyant aircraft access solutions for mineral exploration projects

        Author/Presenter: Barry Prentice, Colin Morrish, | Room: 110

        As the more easily accessible mineral reserves in the world are being depleted, new deposits will be necessary to develop in areas that are more difficult to access. The transport of goods and personnel to locations beyond the established transportation infrastructure imposes additional costs on exploration and extraction. The introduction of a new generation of cargo-carrying buoyant aircraft (airships and hybrid aircraft) could provide a solution. While relatively large buoyant aircraft (greater than 50 tonnes lift) may be necessary to carry mineral concentrates, exploration drilling projects could benefit from short-term logistical support in a lower weight range. This could fit the first buoyant aircraft being developed that will lift between 15 and 25 tonnes. In addition to lowering direct costs, buoyant aircraft could avoid the indirect costs associated with the potential environmental damage and safety hazards created by bush roads. This paper outlines the current developments in buoyant aircraft and the fit for the logistical requirements for exploration equipment movement and camp development.

      • Mon 15:15 - 15:40

        4425: aggregate production and cold climate geomembrane coletanche in the north

        Author/Presenter: Michael Flaviano, | Room: 110

        The presentation will outline production of aggregates in remote area, especially for Northern Mining Infrastructure projects. Case study on Ridley Island Quarry will be presented. Overview of water management and environmental projects using Coletanche Biuminous geomembrane will also be reviewed with a case study. Ridley Island Quarry is located on the southeast side of Kaien Island along the Ridley Island Road, just a few kilometers from the city of Prince Rupert. The quarry is jointly operated by Adventure Paving (a Division of YCS Holdings Ltd.) and the Coast Tsimshian Enterprises (CTE). CTE consists of Metlakatla and Lax Kw’alaams First Nation Communities located adjacent to the City of Prince Rupert, B.C. The quarry has approximately 9 million cubic metres of bedrock reserves that can be crushed to specification for any application from bedding sand to rip rap. The aggregates have been fully tested (including for acid rock drainage) and have been approved for use as rail ballast, asphalt aggregate, ready mix concrete aggregate, and on marine sensitive projects.This quarry and our equipment can produce large volumes of processed rock as required. Coletanche® is based upon the combination of a non-woven geotextile reinforced structure for mechanical resistance and a specifically designed bituminous waterproof binder adapted for use on all types of terrain and in all environments. It is resistant to ageing and mechanical impact, and can be used under concrete and other coatings. Case studies on use of geomembranes for cold conditions will be presented.

      • Mon 15:40 - 16:05

        4442: ail minings bolt-a-bin abutments at baffinland mine

        Author/Presenter: Don Michaluk, | Room: 110

        AIL Minings Bridge Abutments for BaffinLand AIL Mining supplied modular bolt a bin bridge abutments for 4 bridges delivered to BaffinLand mine. They required 4 bridges that would be able to support loaded haul trucks and provide two lane traffic on the minesite. Due to the remote access to the site, AIL Minings bridge abutment solution was easily shipped by water in containers to the site, where local personel were trained on the installation of the abutments during the harsh winter weather. Due to the abutments being modular, they were easily handled and assembled, not requiring heavy lifting equipment to secure the panels in place, then backfilled using local materials. Once assembled, the 4 Acrow bridges were assembled and installed on the bolt a bin abutments. AIL Mining provided all the technical support need during the construction. Author: Don Michaluk, Director of Mining

      project updates

      Session chair : Adam Cooke

      • Tue 08:30 - 08:55

        2201: silvertip mine

        Author/Presenter: Kevin Mather, | Room: 110

        The Silvertip Mine concept came to fruition Q4 2016. A concept that had been chased since 1955, with most exploration activity occurring in the 1980’s and 1990’s, was revived in 2012 by JDS Energy & Mining Inc. Having an aggressive plan for development and just enough ‘start’ funding to get things moving, JDS excelled in pushing the plan for permitting, funding, design into construction and ultimately operation quicker than most industry representatives had seen before. JDS sourced an existing fit for purpose processing plant from Sa Dena Hes, utilized existing engineering and ‘filled in’ the remaining design gaps to better suit the Silvertip property successfully. This allotted JDS to design, procure equipment and construct concurrently. The ‘Just in Time’ engineering concept worked and with construction activities initiating winter January 2016, JDS was able to successfully begin commissioning activities Q3 2016. On-time schedule and construction budget was achieved and supported the transition into operations. The model worked.

      • Tue 08:55 - 09:20

        4253: the yancoal southey potash project

        Author/Presenter: Adam Cooke, | Room: 110

        The Southey Project is a Saskatchewan based, 2.8 MTPy solution mining potash project. Located north of Earl Grey, SK, the project has more than 60 years of reserve and numerous exploration properties in the portfolio. The principal owner of the Southey Project is Yancoal Canada Resources Co., Ltd. (Yancoal Canada). Yancoal Canada is a Saskatoon based potash exploration and development company, with a registered capital of $290 million USD. The company was established in 2011, it is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Yanzhou Coal Mining Co., Ltd. (Yanzhou Coal). Yanzhou Coal is an international mining company with over 40 years of mining experience; is listed in the stock exchanges in New York, Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Sydney; and have businesses over China, Australia and South America. Its core businesses include: mineral resources exploration, coal based chemicals production, power generation and manufacturing.

      • Tue 09:20 - 09:45

        2058: spanish mountain gold project update

        Author/Presenter: Marc Schulte, | Room: 110

        The Spanish Mountain Gold open pit mine project, located in the Cariboo Region of central British Columbia, is planned on a multi-million-ounce gold deposit. The recent preliminary economic assessment (PEA) has identified a 24-year operating plan, with robust economics, producing over 2.2 million ounces of gold. Plans are to proceed into Pre-Feasibility and Feasibility level planning on the current designs, continue with environmental impact and permitting programs, as well as expand the overall resource. This presentation will outline the planning that has gone into the project, including: geology, resources, metallurgy, mining, milling, tailings and infrastructure. A focus will be put on the open pit mining engineering strategies.

      • Tue 09:45 - 10:10

        2017: “nexgen energy’s arrow deposit, southwestern athabasca basin, saskatchewan: technical characteristics supporting the preliminary economic assessment”

        Author/Presenter: Troy Boisjoli, Matt Batty, | Room: 110

        The Arrow Uranium Deposit is entirely basement-hosted and contains an Indicated Mineral Resource estimate of 1.18 million tonnes at an average grade of 6.88% U3O8 for a total of 179.5 million pounds U3O8 and an Inferred Mineral Resource estimate of 4.25 million tonnes at an average grade of 1.30% U3O8 for a total of 122.1 million pounds U3O8. The Arrow Deposit discovery was made by NexGen Energy Ltd. in February 2014 at its wholly owned Rook I property in the southwest Athabasca Basin of northern Saskatchewan. The Arrow Deposit consists of multiple high-grade, basement-hosted uranium lenses concentrated within five zones, known as the A1 through A5 shears. Uranium grade within the mineralized domains was interpolated using a combination of ordinary kriging and inverse distance squared. The current mineral resource indicates the Arrow Deposit has dimensions of 885 m (strike) by 290 m (width) by 850 m (vertical). Recent diamond drilling from the winter 2017 and summer 2017 programs have expanded the known extents of uranium mineralization at Arrow, which is not included in the current mineral resource estimate. In July of 2017, NexGen released results from the Preliminary Economic Assessment (PEA) of the Arrow Deposit. The PEA study conceptualizes a conventional longhole retreat stope mining method, and mineral processing is envisioned at an on-site mill packaging yellow-cake as the saleable product. Tailings will be deposited underground as paste fill in existing excavations, excess tailings will be deposited underground in a purpose-built tailings management facility. Deposit access will be through two main shafts, a third shaft will be excavated for the delivery of fresh air and to act as an alternate egress. The mining method for the underground will be longhole retreat mining in both transverse and longitudinal methods. Stopes are planned on 30 m sub-levels, with strike lengths of 15 m and variable width (hangingwall to footwall) typically from two to ten meters, with a maximum width of 20 m. The process plant is envisaged as a conventional uranium processing facility. The conceptual mill design will have a nominal feed rate of 511,000 tonnes per annum (tpa) and will have the capacity to produce approximately 29 million pounds per year of U3O8. The mill will have an estimated U3O8 recovery of 96%.

      first nations and mining

      Session chair : Rahul Lakhoté

      • Tue 10:30 - 10:55

        2103: raising the methodological bar: the application and use of traditional knowledge and genomic approaches to project monitoring and adaptive management

        Author/Presenter: Doug Bright, Deanna Higginson, | Room: 110

        This presentation discusses the practical value of increased use of both Traditional Knowledge and Traditional Use (TK/TU) and environmental genomics tools such as environmental DNA (eDNA) in monitoring and mine project management. When used together, these powerful tools and methodologies can provide critical information, not just for gathering baseline data but also for discovering new ways of balancing resource development activities and achieving environmental sustainability across all phases of project approval, construction, operation, and closure. These two types of knowledge are each substantially under-utilized for mine management decisions, especially beyond the initial acquisition of baseline data to achieve environmental approvals. Each method also has a much greater capacity to help guide a project through a mine’s life than is currently recognized by industry. When used together, TK/TU and genomics such as eDNA provide greatly improved, project-specific information for informing cumulative effects monitoring and management while providing culturally appropriate approaches to project and land use decisions. In addition, these two methodological approaches are highly complementary, and can collectively reduce the uncertainty about the consequences of resource extraction by providing tangible information over larger scales (landscape and watershed-level) as well as improved spatial and temporal resolution.

      • Tue 10:55 - 11:20

        4289: initiatives and value creation by det'on cho corporation

        Author/Presenter: Paul Gruner, | Room: 110

        Indigenous business in the North is a win for the communities that they represent, the Territories that they operate in and the mining sector that they serve. Det’on Cho with its group of companies and hiring practices has effectively provided quality services to its various mining clients, employed and developed Yellowknife Dene First Nation members and assisted in contributing to the local economy in a meaningful way. Healthy Indigenous Corporations are good for all stakeholders in the North. Det'on Cho Corporation has actively been working to build programs which provides value for the Yellowknife Dene Community, industry and the Northwest Territory at large. A review of the initiatives being undertaken and the value created will be reviewed.

      • Tue 11:20 - 11:45

        4305: mining to promote first nations growth

        Author/Presenter: Mark Brajer, | Room: 110

        Mines and mining projects can be used effectively to assist in the growth of First nations, such as the Tlicho nation near Yellowknife. Formation and management of businesses and execution of projects are just the beginning to assist in the benefit of mining to First Nations. The ability of Tlicho and other First Nations individuals to train, improve skill sets, as well as earn a living through out the year, all contribute to the benefit of the society, economic development and growth. Building of winter roads for access to mines and to the remote communities are essential for the continued success of the mining industry. Transportation of goods through to those businesses and communities are just as essential. The contribution of Tlicho and other communities are essential to the success of these endeavors. Diversifying the businesses to include mine remediation, for example, can also improve the potential for training and development of local individuals. That training can be used not just in the local geographic area, but throughout other projects across Canada and the world, which allows individuals to expand their horizons, and improve their future. Increasing all-season access to remote First Nations communities, which has been a direct result of mining projects, also is a way to expand the economies of small communities. These communities can become hubs in the future, helping to increase economic conditions, and individual development of the population. The Tłı̨chǫ First Nation is a located near Yellowknife in Northwest Territories. The Tłı̨chǫ Government has the power to pass laws, enforce its own laws, delegate its powers and authority, and establish structure of Tłı̨chǫ Government and its internal management. It has worked diligently in conjunction with mining companies for many years. Today, many residents are employed in Tłı̨chǫ companies, in local government and business, or work on rotation at the diamond mines, some 300 km north of the community. This is a crucial time for the First Nations and northern mining, and together, the businesses like the Tlicho Investment Corporation, the various diamond mine corporations, and the communities must work together, not only business development, but also for the development of communities, First Nations individuals, the environment, and the bright future of northern Canada.

      • Tue 11:45 - 12:10

        4330: creating a balance: aboriginal businesses, environment, and mining

        Author/Presenter: Peter Vanriel, | Room: 110

        Kitsaki Management was established in 1981 and performs the for-profit economic development activities of the Lac La Ronge Indian Band. Kitsaki invests in several sectors including: transportation, road construction, insurance, environmental, hospitality, mining, and agriculture. Kitsaki's focus is on long-term sustainable businesses. One of Kitsaki's companies, Canada North Environmental Services (CanNorth) provides high quality environmental, risk, and heritage services to a diversity of mining clients, including some of the largest mining companies in the world. Established in 1997, CanNorth maximizes Indigenous community involvement in projects, including integrating traditional knowledge, engaging local people in environmental programs, and creating employment and education opportunities. The company also provides specialty skills related to communication and trust building between communities and Indigenous groups, and mining developments. CanNorth has engaged and consulted with communities and Indigenous groups, both nationally and internationally. They design and manage community-based monitoring programs, conduct public consultations, provide education and employment opportunities, and serve in a technical advisory role. Examples of community programs include the AWG (Athabasca Working Group) Environmental Monitoring Program and the EARMP (Eastern Athabasca Regional Monitoring Program). Another specialty of CanNorth is conducting research programs that assess the consumption and safety of traditional foods. These programs involve interviewing community members to gain information on the types, quantities consumed, and locations of harvest of country and wild foods. The results of interviews are used to establish a sampling program whereby traditional foods from the area are collected and chemically analyzed. Research results are disseminated to community members through written reports, oral presentations, and discussions at meetings. CanNorth has completed wild foods studies for mining companies, government agencies, and many Indigenous communities. Selected Indigenous community programs are discussed in further detail.

      case studies

      Session chair : Kurt Breede

      • Tue 14:00 - 14:25

        1951: capital project risk

        Author/Presenter: George Sturgis, | Room: 110

        Capital project risk profiles are significantly different from risk profiles associated with ongoing operational activities. The primary driver for this difference is the unique product or service delivered by a project which makes the use of near term historical performance less reliable for assessing project risk. Capital project risk profiles require a process of determining the probability of cost and schedule overruns and assigning a percentage or a value applied as a contingency for both cost and schedule. It is a formal process that includes involvement of the project team using techniques based on Monte-Carlo principles. The risk analysis is performed on the total project cost, including all features of the project, but excluding escalation and contingency. The risk analysis is performed separately on cost and schedule then a composite cost and schedule risk is arrived at for a given probability. Common cost elements for all project activities are evaluated for cost risk and an aggregate cost risk is established. The schedule risk analysis uses similar statistical techniques and focuses not only on critical path activities but also on activities near the critical path, since they can potentially affect project schedule. The schedule logic is maintained during the risk analysis which allows cumulative effects of schedule risk for each project activity to be analyzed. Schedule and cost risk analysis are two highly-linked processes and as such overall project risk can only be portrayed by a composite risk analysis that looks at both cost and schedule risk. The scope of work for the capital project needs to be known and defined such that the schedule and the cost are based on this defined scope of work. The integrity of the base case schedule and cost estimate should be ensured through a comprehensive review. Cost and schedule risk analysis is not designed to compensate for a low quality cost estimate and/or schedule. The cost and schedule risk analysis results become part of the approved project budget for use during project execution.

      • Tue 14:25 - 14:50

        1939: tahoe canada - self-executed rapid shaft expansion project at the bell creek mine

        Author/Presenter: David Bernier, Cory James, | Room: 110

        Tahoe Resources acquired Lake Shore Gold Corp. on April 1, 2016, adding two underground mines, as well as attractive growth projects and exploration targets to their portfolio. Located in Timmins, Ontario, Canada, one the world’s most prolific gold camps, the Timmins operations consist of two operating mines, Timmins West and Bell Creek, both of which feeding the Bell Creek Mill. The Bell Creek mine is located in Hoyle Township, Ontario, Canada, approximately 20kms northeast of Timmins. Operations are exploiting steeply-dipping shear-hosted sulfide gold mineralization by underground longhole mining methods with ore trucked to surface via a ramp system for processing. In order to facilitate a production increase, lower operating costs and unlock the exploration potential of the mine, a project to rehabilitate a historic shaft at Bell Creek and extend it from approximately 300 metres to a depth of 1,080 metres commenced in the second quarter of 2016, with completion targeted for mid-2018. The shaft project is expected to result in a doubling of production at Bell Creek, to approximately 80,000 ounces per year, and to significantly extend mine life. In order to accomplish this task, Tahoe has chosen to execute the project with 100% internal resources, which is a rather unconventional method for shaft sinking. All engineering, procurement, execution and management of the work are being done internally. In order to minimize the duration of the project, multiple working fronts were established. At times, there were up to five independent work locations progressing simultaneously. The initial phase of the project consisted of rehabilitating the upper portion of the timber shaft from surface to 240L. This was achieved using the existing headframe and hoisting plant. Meanwhile, lateral shaft development commenced to access the existing shaft bottom at 300L. Development for the 535L & 790L shaft stations followed, with the existing mine workings already established beyond these levels. As the shaft stations were developed, the pilot raises for shaft deepening were excavated by mechanized raise climbers, in three separate legs, from the bottom working upwards. These pilot raises were driven from 535L to 320L, 790L to 535L, and 1030L to 790L once access was gained and lateral shaft development completed. Strategically located rock pentices were left in order to keep a bulkhead in place and protect workers from materials in the upper horizon. Once a raise was piloted, this allowed for a second crew to begin slashing the pilot raise to full shaft dimension and install the permanent ground support. This was achieved using a mechanized raise climber with a work platform, from the top working downwards. Once pilot slashing was completed, a third crew, using a multi-deck work galloway suspended from an internal sinking plant, installed the shaft furnishings. The internal sinking plant was established on 240L, while the work deck setup on 300L would bring down the workers and material to equip the shaft. This process will repeat itself until the shaft has reached the 1080 level. Meanwhile, on surface, a bulkhead was constructed at the shaft collar once the rehabilitation of the old portion of the shaft was completed. In tandem with the in-shaft work, crews have been demolishing and rebuilding the new hoisting plant, headframe and ore storage bins. The project is expected to be completed by the end of July 2018.

      • Tue 14:50 - 15:15

        2092: mse wall constructed from worn haul truck tires at the teck highland valley copper mine

        Author/Presenter: Rod Kostaschuk, Eric Coffin, Mathieu Veillette, | Room: 110

        Mining operations often require mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) retaining walls for support of infrastructure, including the construction of crushers, level pads for milling and office facilities, and roads. Traditional MSE wall systems are manufactured by specific vendors and require custom made materials that are transported to site and installed by a specialized contractor familiar with the system. This paper explains the design and construction of an innovative 16 meter high MSE wall at the Teck Highland Valley Copper mine in British Columbia. The structure utilizes worn haul truck tires for both the wall face and anchoring components. The tires are connected by steel cables. The wall has both vertical and battered segments and was constructed before relocating the primary crusher into a pocket in the wall and placing it on spread footings founded on mine waste. Re-using worn tires contributes to sustainability and reduction of the mine’s waste stream through recycling the tires for MSE wall applications, multiple times if desired. The tire MSE wall offers significant cost savings by avoiding both tire disposal costs and acquisition costs of a vendor MSE wall system. The constructability of the tire MSE wall is on par or exceeds that of traditional MSE wall systems, as the wider spacing of reinforcing elements contributes to the fast pace of construction that can be achieved. The use of haul truck tires is a practical, innovative, cost-effective and sustainable approach to MSE wall construction on mine sites, for which there are no precedents.

      • Tue 15:15 - 15:40

        4340: analysis of a series of potash project successes

        Author/Presenter: David Myers, | Room: 110

        The Potash mining sector experienced a major boom in the past decade, during which Wood provided Engineering, Procurement, Construction Management (EPCM) services for a series of projects totaling $10 billion CAD. The projects followed a natural progression in size dictated by their economic return on investment, and grew with and finally exceeded local construction capacity. They spanned general economic cycles and unexpected global events. As such, the projects provide a rich data set to analyze the effects of changing market conditions, competing projects, and management strategies compared to project size. This paper summarizes these projects' characteristics relating to cost performance in a highly challenging business environment.

      yukon mining projects

      Session chair : Christopher Simons

      • Wed 08:30 - 08:55

        1959: challenges and solutions for base load power supply to mining operations in yukon

        Author/Presenter: Cameron Brown, | Room: 110

        Mining operations in the Canadian North are uniquely challenged by access to the electrical grid and sufficient base load to sustain high power demands required for consistent milling. Historically, Yukon off-grid power is achieved by diesel power systems. However, alternatives to diesel are becoming more and more preferred by stakeholders and shareholders. Liquefied natural gas is a safer, more environmentally friendly alternative to diesel use in the Yukon that is readily accessed from northern British Columbia. The Casino Mine Project is a 55+ year project that can change the remote power supply chain in Yukon. By establishing an LNG supply chain in Yukon, the Casino Mine can shift the Yukon’s reliance on diesel, while setting up the territory to evaluate options to shift to a low carbon future that does not prohibit industrial development or place undue cost on citizens of the North.

      • Wed 08:55 - 09:20

        2108: victoria gold’s eagle project – building yukon’s next gold mine

        Author/Presenter: Tony George, | Room: 110

        Victoria Gold is building the Yukon’s next gold mine - The Eagle Gold project. The project, which is currently in construction, will be producing gold in 2019. This presentation will highlight the evolution of the project, and discuss the approach for a cost effective mine design, engineering and construction. The presentation will also discuss the effective phased approach where Phase 1, completed over 12 weeks in 2017, was able de-risk the project and reduce capital cost risk for the main construction phase. The presentation will, of course, also provide an update on the current stage of construction and operational readiness as we prepare for commissioning and operations ramp up in H1 2019.

      • Wed 09:20 - 09:45

        2168: first nations development corporations – their role in a resource based economy

        Author/Presenter: Albert Drapeau, | Room: 110

        This presentation will provide a high-level look on the past, present and future role of First Nation (FN) Development Corporations in the development of a strong and diverse northern economy, one that is currently reliant on resource extraction. Discussion will start with an explanation of Land Claims, and the implication of settled vs unsettled FNs. Further discussion will outline how FN Dev Corps operate, citing examples of current business investments including those directly and indirectly providing service and supply for the mining sector. A brief look at the northern economic outlook, mining in particular, will provide a backdrop to the current FN contribution to the economy. Looking at what is happening elsewhere, the presentation will then explore with what is possible for FN Dev Corps and what building blocks and approaches are needed to achieve that possibility. The presentation will conclude with some recommendation and next steps for an enhanced linkage to industry.

      • Wed 09:45 - 10:10

        4280: hyland gold project

        Author/Presenter: Paul Gray, | Room: 110

        The Hyland Gold Project, owned by Banyan Gold Corp., is located in the southeast Yukon 74 kilometres northeast of the town of Watson Lake, Yukon. The Hyland Main Zone Inferred Gold Resource, prepared in accordance with NI 43-101, at a 0.6g/t gold equivalent ("AuEq") cutoff, contains 12,503,994 tonnes with 361,692 ounces gold at 0.9g/t and 2,248,948 ounces silver at 5.59g/t for a combined gold and silver 396,468 ounces AuEq at 0.99g/t. The Project is in the southeastern Selwyn Basin, a Late Precambrian to Middle Devonian tectonic element characterized by deposition of deep water marine sediments. The area is underlain by metasedimentary lithologies of the Yusezyu, Narchilla, and Vampire Formations of the Precambrian Hyland Group as well as Lower to Middle Cambrian Sekwi Formation, Cambrian to Ordovician Otter Creek and Rabbitkettle Formations, Ordovician Sunblood Formation, Silurian to Devonian Road River Group and undivided, time-equivalent Nonda-Muncho-McConnell-Stone-Dunedin Formation. The older sedimentary rocks were intruded by Cretaceous granite, quartz monzonite and granodiorite plugs assigned to the Selwyn Plutonic Suite. Collectively, they record a quiescent, subsiding continental margin punctuated by transgressive and regressive cycles, rifting, collision of allochthonous terranes, mountain building and magmatism. The deposit is interpreted as a sediment hosted, structurally controlled gold mineralization target, folded about a north-south trending antiform overlain by massive limestone to the east and west. Mineralization coincides with the antiformal axis and appears to be the major control of mineralization. The main zones of mineralization on the project are aligned along a major north-south trending structural lineament referred to as the Quartz Lake Corridor, an 18 km long zone of faulting, folding and brecciation that controls a variety of styles of gold+/-silver mineralization. Exploration on the project to date has tested approximately 11km of the 18 km trend, and includes the Camp, Main, Cuz and the Montrose Ridge Zones.

    • environment and sustainable development

      responsible water use & management

      Session chair : Brandon Nichols

      • Mon 14:00 - 14:25

        4449: summary of tailings and mineral waste management workshop

        Author/Presenter: Rick Siwik, | Room: 111

        Description not available

      • Mon 14:25 - 14:50

        2021: a corporate wide approach to water stewardship during operations and closure

        Author/Presenter: Jeremy Collyard, PMP, Paul Glader, PE, | Room: 111

        Hecla is currently conducting a water stewardship review for the purposes of identifying strategies to optimize water use with the focus on reducing the quantity of water treated and handled during both operation and post-closure at six active and closed mine sites. The approach taken by Hecla and Stantec is centered on a basic predictive site-wide water balance that includes water chemistry data resulting in a simple predictive model. This tool, coupled with input from multiple disciplines at the site (environmental, mill and process, tailings operations, etc.) as it relates to water chemistry requirements for use, is used to develop water conservation approaches for the entire site. Potential opportunities for the reduction of water treatment and handling have been identified at four sites to date. These opportunities have been identified throughout the facilities from underground and open pit dewatering, stormwater management, ore processing and underground operation, water treatment technologies, to concurrent reclamation. Identified opportunities at the four sites completed have the potential of reducing water treatment and handling by over 1 billion gallons annually which represents a significant risk reduction and an operating cost reduction with even greater savings to be realized at closure.

      • Mon 14:50 - 15:15

        4206: water treatment: a regulatory perspective

        Author/Presenter: Sean Shaw, Kim Bellefontaine, Brenda Bailey, | Room: 111

        The Province of British Columbia regulates mines in a manner that supports sustainable resource development, while ensuring environmental protection, reclamation and closure of mines, and the minimization of financial risk to taxpayers in the event that a mining company defaults on its regulatory obligations. Metal leaching and acid rock drainage (ML/ARD) represents the most significant and costly environmental issue facing the mining industry. Thus, adequate mitigations strategies to prevent and minimize ML/ARD are the first line of defence to ensuring a mine is developed, operated and closed in a manner to minimize impacts to water quality. These strategies include, but are not limited to, avoidance of high risk mine waste materials, blending of mine materials, cover systems, segregation, sub-aqueous storage and water treatment. Typically, the Province views water treatment as a mitigation strategy of last resort when other methods are not feasible or sufficient to prevent impacts to the receiving environment. This is due to significant drawbacks with water treatment including the associated risks, long term liabilities, land alienation, secondary waste production and costs. Nevertheless, with effective drainage collection and the appropriate process or technology, water treatment of contaminated drainage can be a highly effective and reliable means of protecting the downstream environment, and in many cases, may be the only feasible means of preventing off-site impacts. Water treatment technologies are currently permitted and employed on 18 mine sites in British Columbia, with an additional eight systems required for mine sites in the future, either during operations and/or at closure. These technologies include a range of active water treatment systems, including low and high density sludge lime treatment, ferric sulphate, pit lake bioreactor, fluidized bed reactor, advanced biological metals removal (ABMet), flocculant and multistage metal removal systems. Several new active water treatment technologies have been proposed for new and existing mine sites in British Columbia, including ion exchange, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, biological oxidation/reduction, electro-coagulation and electrochemical oxidation/reduction processes. Additionally, several semi-passive technologies have been proposed and/or are undergoing pilot scale trials, including various bioreactors, saturated rock fills, permeable reactive barriers, limestone drains and wetlands. This presentation will explore some of the challenges with current and emerging water treatment technologies from a regulatory perspective, and discuss how these can be addressed by industry to meet regulatory requirements for mining projects in BC.

      • Mon 15:15 - 15:40

        4439: climate change services for the mining sector

        Author/Presenter: Sean Capstick, Rachel Wyles, | Room: 111

        The effects of climate change are being felt globally, with increasing temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns that are significantly affecting the hydrological system, including more frequent heavy precipitation events resulting in a greater risk of flooding or periods of drought that could affect water necessary for operations. Any risks identified under current climate conditions is potentially more vulnerable under future climate conditions. It is important to both understand the current climate and how it has been changing, as well as how the future climate is projected to change under different time horizons and scenarios (i.e. radiative forcing of greenhouse gas emissions) for a given region. Projected changes in climate, along with their uncertainty, present physical, reputational and economic risks to the mining sector. Mines are typically located in challenging geographies with extreme weather, rely on infrastructure with long lifetimes, create by-products that must be managed in perpetuity, rely on climate-sensitive water and energy resources, and involve global supply chains. As a result, mining companies need to address these risks and that the status quo of solely relying on stationary design criteria based on historical information, including that provided by government agencies, is no longer acceptable. A scalable approach based on what stage of planning, design, operation and closure in the mine life cycle is required. This presentation will outline industry best practices for this assessment.

      • Mon 15:40 - 16:05

        4238: partnerships for sustainable water management

        Author/Presenter: Jocelyn Fraser, | Room: 111

        With growing global demand, access to clean water is becoming difficult, and competition for this increasingly scarce resource is a frequent cause of conflict between mining companies and communities. As a result, many mining companies now view water as a strategic asset rather than simply a commodity to be bought and sold. This new way of thinking has led to opportunities for collaborative partnerships between mining companies, communities, government agencies, and other water users. The objective of these partnerships is the shared and sustainable use of water resources. This paper examines several initiatives undertaken by mining companies and communities in resource-rich regions. While acknowledging the diversity of perspectives on the value of water, the paper argues that when mining companies work with communities on issues of mutual interest, there are economic returns for both business and society, as well as the potential to establish processes for the sustainable use of resources. The discussion will be framed around the nexus of four UN 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to illustrate the contribution mining can make to advancing the SDG agenda.

      10x gains through waste monetization

      Session chair : Karen Chovan

      • Tue 08:30 - 08:55

        2044: finding value in mining waste materials

        Author/Presenter: Regan Schafer-Frentz, Timothy Joseph, | Room: 111

        In the past, when social license to operate and environmental stewardship were not common practice, reclamation practices following mine closure were either minimal or non-existent, which left behind large abandoned sites. In addition to the disregarded environmental responsibilities, local communities in the region were now faced with unemployment from the closure of the mine and the inability to use the land in its current state. After years of relying on the mine for income, the community must now consider its future beyond mining, one that may be difficult to pursue given the lack of financial support. This paper suggests the discussion of post-mining landscape use earlier in the mining process such that the community can form an alternative land use strategy following closure. This strategy would incorporate the needs and culture of the community, investigate the most natural method to both reclaim the landscape according to environmental regulations and utilize waste as a tool to create income, and it would occur prior to the mine becoming operational. This paper suggests considering current and abandoned mines as an opportunity for local communities to create a new source of revenue, specifically by putting a value on its waste material. Many alternative land uses exist and have been successful for many communities that showed the initiative to become self-sustaining by creating its own local commerce. To make this concept more common, this paper also suggests revisiting current mining regulations, specifically the National Instrument 43-101, to include waste in its reporting requirements. A case study from the Northwest Territories has been investigated to provide an example of how a derelict piece of land could be transformed into a safe and useful landscape for the community.

      • Tue 08:55 - 09:20

        4239: olives in newfoundland?

        Author/Presenter: Allan Cramm, | Room: 111

        “Olive – The color you get when you mix Gold with Green.” Anaconda Mining Inc., at its Point Rouse Project in Newfoundland is well underway with its Olive Project to go Green with Gold. The company’s open pit waste, has been demonstrated to be both chemically and physically suitable as a construction aggregate. The company and its Mining Contractor-Guy J Bailey Ltd., worked together to build a shipping port and crushing facility adjacent to the mine to prepare the company stockpiled waste rock for export. The companies, have produced and shipped more than 3,000,000 tonnes in its initial year of operation. Anaconda Mining Inc. is now re-thinking its ‘Tailing Storage” Chemical analysts of process tails suggested it could be suitable as a mineral fertilizer. The company is part way to its’ 2nd. independent growing test and is quite pleased with the results. Given the company proximity to tidewater, it could become an important economic generator for the mine. The 3rd Jewel in the Olive Project is converting the open pit mine to a tailings containment system. The company has received permits to store locally identified resources in this pit ensuring long term, land form equivalent tailings storage.

      • Tue 09:20 - 09:45

        2130: bioleaching with genomics: optimizing bioprocesses for gold recovery with bactech environmental corp.

        Author/Presenter: Nadia Mykytczuk, Madiha Khan, Paul Miller, | Room: 111

        BacTech Environmental Corporation has developed the patented BACOX technology that harnesses the abilities of microbial communities for improved bioleaching and metal recovery from discarded mine tailings. We address the need to characterize the microbial communities present in the bioreactor seed mixtures in order to better apply and optimize the bioreactor processes for efficient mineral yields along with effective toxicity reduction of the tailings materials. Genomics tools have the potential to accelerate innovation in bioprocess development as they are being developed and scaled-up for application and operation. Using selective culturing and metagenomic analyses, we will aim to identify and characterize the optimal oxidation reactions and the microbial species that are best suited to enhance gold recovery from arsenopyrite tailings. Clearly identifying the functional pathways that are active during the leaching tests allows us to determine rate limiting steps that might be optimized with modifying operational parameters for the BACOX process. As the integration of established bioleaching technology and genomics mature with projects like this, it is anticipated that genomics tools will help refine bioleaching and allow for further innovation and application of this technology to a variety of mine wastes for effective metal recovery and remediation.

      • Tue 09:45 - 10:10

        2186: the electrochemical technology serving the circular economy at nemaska lithium

        Author/Presenter: Thomas Bibienne, Jean-Francois Magnan, | Room: 111

        Nemaska Lithium is building North America’s richest and largest hard rock lithium project and lithium compounds processing facility through a unique deposit in Nemaska and a state-of-the-art transformation plant in Shawinigan, both located in the province of Québec. Early in the project, the technical team confirmed the possibility of directly producing high-purity battery-grade lithium hydroxide using the electromembrane technology developed at the phase one demonstration plant (P1P). As part of this electrochemical reaction, lithium hydroxide is produced using lithium sulfate, a waste material provided by our strategic partner Johnson Matthey Battery Materials (JMBM). This lithium sulfate by-product is produced from the synthesis of LiFePO4 (LFP) as developed by JMBM, with lithium hydroxide as a lithium precursor. This example is a relevant illustration of the circular economy: the precursor is transformed into a battery-grade material and by-product that can once again be converted into a fresh precursor. Thus, the waste from LFP hydrothermal synthesis is reused and increases its value by being used as a precursor. This process is a demonstration of the circular economy, a concept that appeared in the Seventies but already known two centuries prior through the famous maxim of chemist Antoine Loivisier Nothing is wasted, nothing is created, everything is transformed. The electromembrane technology has the potential to be adapted to process chemical by-products from different companies. In the circular economy created at Nemaska Lithium, another product can be reused: sulfuric acid. Through the conversion into lithium hydroxide of the spodumene extracted from the Whabouchi mine, sulfuric acid is employed to extract the lithium from the mineral in order to produce lithium sulfate. The latter is then used as a raw material in the membrane electrolysis process to produce lithium hydroxide. This presentation highlights the extraction and the synthesis methods using the benefits of recycling loops, illustrating the circular economy created from Nemaska Lithium’s processes.

      developments in mine waste management

      Session chair : Alistair Kent

      • Tue 10:30 - 10:55

        2112: innovations for mine waste management and mine closure

        Author/Presenter: Ljiljana Josic, | Room: 111

        The mining industry has been developing innovative mine waste disposal methods over the years. Good mine waste management practices, valorisation of waste into added value products and introduction of innovative technologies is apparent to lead to better environmental conditions in mining operations with subsequent benefits to social acceptance. In parallel, mine closure good practice is the key solution to make mining rehabilitation an added value for the sector and additionally keep alive economic for the local economy and engage social acceptance. Most innovations have mainly an impact on environmental and social aspects. This paper is to discuss current innovations in the mine waste management and mine closure practices including few cases studies where innovations have been applied

      • Tue 10:55 - 11:20

        2158: an approach to dam safety assessment

        Author/Presenter: David Willms, Harvey McLeod, Len Murray, | Room: 111

        Following the tailings dam failures at Mount Polley and Fundão, major mining companies have conducted systematic reviews of their tailings facilities worldwide. KCB has approached several of these assignments using systematic dam safety assessments. The objective of these dam safety assessments was to strike a balance between sufficient depth of review to provide positive confirmation on the presence of catastrophic hazards, and the need to prioritize a large number of dams with varying consequences of failure. This paper discusses the general approach, the protocols, the level of detail, and the rationale for each. Although these assessments do not replace a dam safety review, they contain many of the same elements and could be thought of as in-between an audit and a comprehensive dam safety review. Key elements include: a comprehensive checklist review of dam safety and governance systems, a review of consequence classification informed by a semi-quantitative dam break calculation, a review of the design criteria, and simplified calculations to check if the facilities meet the design criteria for stability and water management. One of the benefits of approaching a large portfolio of dams in a systematic way, is that it provides the owners with a baseline to compare and prioritize across multiple sites, and to better put into context the multiple dam safety inspections and reviews which are typically prepared by a multitude of different consultants. A suggestion for improvement of the general tailings facility engineering practice is the development of design record reports for dams which have a consequence classification equal to or greater than “High”. The design record report should document the basis for the dam consequence, design criteria, strength parameters, seismicity, flood parameters, and geochemistry. The consequence classifications should be informed by a dam break study and the stability analyses for the dams should be updated. The report should contain key reference information such as site investigation data and cross sections with best known conditions of the dams.

      • Tue 11:20 - 11:45

        2188: experimental models of metal leaching for scaling-up to the field

        Author/Presenter: Zhong-Sheng Liu, Cheng Huang, Liang Ma, Eben Dy, Zhong Xie, Mike O'Kane, Steven Pearce, | Room: 111

        There has been limited success to date in accurately predicting water quality from waste rock dumps at mine sites. Consequently, it has cost the mining industry hugely to implement mitigating measures for minimizing potential environmental impacts. Since the length scale of waste rock dumps at mine sites is about 3-4 orders greater when compared to lab-based and leach-pad tests, the drainage chemistry of rock samples from these tests is likely to be significantly different from that of the field. Thus a question arises: how to design the experimental models (smaller-scale testing models) so that the test results can be accurately scaled-up to the field? The authors of the paper have developed a similitude approach to design experimental metal leaching models and try to ground the scaling up process on sound scientific foundation. This paper will further the concept of the similitude approach and presents experimental models of metal leaching for predicting the drainage chemistry of waste rock dumps at mine sites. The experimental setups here are the same as ordinary humidity cell, column-leaching and leach-pad tests; but they are different in that the experimental models meet similitude conditions, which involve water-infiltration rate, rock particle size, rock-sample volume (depth and diameter) and leaching kinetic constants. By doing so, the similitude between the experimental models and the field is kept, and accordingly the scaling up relations of drainage chemistry between the two would also be kept.

      • Tue 11:45 - 12:10

        4203: filter pressed tailings – innovations, current practice, and risk assessment

        Author/Presenter: Colleen , SRK, Vancouver Crystal, Jack Caldwell, | Room: 111

        Filter pressing tailings is designated as the safest way to manage tailings. But there are risks. This paper summarizes recent publications on filter pressed tailings management and hence discusses the risk inherent in filter-pressed tailings management. The discussion includes consideration of recent practice, improvements in equipment, issues of rates of filtering, placement methods, comingling with waste rock, tailings amendment and treatment approaches, and subsequent tailings performance. The extent to which placed tailings generate excess pore pressure, the control of excess pressures, and the time rate of strength gain are considered. Hence the paper proceed to list the risk of filter-pressed tailings management and performance. A methodology for carrying out such risk assessment is discussed. This includes, as recommended by recently updated Mining Association of Canada guidelines, the use of bow tie diagrams and other risk assessment methods including event trees, fault trees, and FMEAs.

      risk management and design

      Session chair : Jenifer Hill

      • Tue 14:00 - 14:25

        2113: integrated management system for noise and dust control

        Author/Presenter: Pascal Rheaume, | Room: 111

        The mining plan lies at the heart of an open-pit project. It is mostly elaborated on technical and economical aspects. However, recent mining plans must also include social and environmental aspects such as noise and dust control. These two sources of pollution may greatly impact mining operations when close to urban areas. Noise and dust emissions may indeed force operations to slow down or even stop occasionally, directly impacting the profitability of the mine. In an attempt to minimize the economic loss in such situations, WSP Canada Inc. is currently developing an integrated management system for noise and dust control. This presentation will give a brief overview of the tool development status, its capability to optimize mine productions and WSP’s vision for the future of the system.

      • Tue 14:25 - 14:50

        1940: are we adept for extreme climatic and seismic events?

        Author/Presenter: Hafeez Baba, Henri Sangam, | Room: 111

        More recently, climatic and seismic events have repeated which either reached or exceeded design conditions. Are the mining professionals adept for such extremes? This paper will look at some key mine infrastructure such as tailings management and water retention facilities; mine waste stockpiles and large-size earthworks that may be at risk. The aim is to create awareness among mine professionals around sustainable mine infrastructure instead of simply following current releases of codes, standards and industry practices. Mine professionals deal with some unique and large-size infrastructure development and the failure of some mine waste management facilitates can have severe environmental and economic consequences, and can bring disrepute to the mining profession. More often mining professionals work on a global scale and in some jurisdictions where historic data gathering or established standards are those that the mining professionals gather or establish. Through this paper an attempt is being made to develop an approach to support adequate orientation for civil engineering professionals venturing into mining industry, including specific approach and awareness around understanding climatic extremes and global warming impacts on the mine infrastructure, as well as ways to create a more robust and sustainable mine infrastructure.

      • Tue 14:50 - 15:15

        4213: so you need to build a waste rock dump... are our challenges and opportunities still the same?

        Author/Presenter: Michael O'Kane, | Room: 111

        This paper asks the question, in essence: “Are the challenges and opportunities when building WRDs changing?” There are technical and financial perspectives in response to this question. For example, Canada's MEND Program highlights that over 50% of respondents from mine sites when surveyed have plans to collect and treat mine effluent into perpetuity. It is reasonable to assume that project economics of most, if not all, of these sites did not include the costs associated with this collection and treatment. This is not to say these projects did not provide economic value; rather, that the project economics were not optimized. In other words, the projects encountered unfunded and unrecognized liability associated with water quality issues. Ernest and Young, in their 2016-2017 assessment of the top ten business risks facing the metals and mining industry, place "cash optimization" at the top of the list (noting that it did not rank in the top ten in the previous year's assessment). The unfunded and unrecognized liability that mine operators and owners must manage into perpetuity due to effluent from waste rock dumps represents a substantial influence on "cash optimization". One can argue that a similar conclusion arises from Morgan Stanley's 2017 integration of Environmental, Sustainability and Governance (ESG) factors when analyzing investment opportunities in the metals and mining market. Management of water is one of four new ESG factors Morgan Stanley include in their 2017 assessment. From a technical perspective then, what are the new challenges and opportunities we face when planning a waste rock dump? This paper first sets the financial framework that allows us to "...Change the Question.." in regards to how we typically think about constructing waste rock dumps. Then, new and innovative technical solutions are discussed and case studies presented to illustrate a holistic approach for optimizing construction of waste rock dumps. The approach provides for the opportunity to substantially reduce, and more importantly defensibly quantify, waste rock dump stored acidity generation and release such that the risk of unfunded and unrecognized liability during operations and at closure is minimized. Case studies, including material characterization, numerical modelling, and field performance monitoring will be presented for sites in a variety of different climatic settings aroun

      • Tue 15:15 - 15:40

        4393: integrated solutions for physical mine hazard rehabilitation

        Author/Presenter: Paul Palmer, Jonathon Taylor, Robert McCauley, Josip Balaban, | Room: 111

        Physical mine hazards typically include mine openings to surface (shafts, raises, adits, etc.), near surface mine workings (i.e., crown pillars), waste rock piles, and tailings storage facilities. Depending on the accessibility and stability of these physical hazards they can present varying degrees of risk to the general public and may result in damage to property, injury, or even fatality. Often the risks associated with these hazards, if left un-rehabilitated, increase with time. What might have once been considered a low risk situation during operations or directly after closure, can become a higher risk if the stability degrades over years and/or decades. In Ontario, preventing inadvertent access and protecting openings or potential subsidence from the public are the primary focus of rehabilitation solutions for physical mine hazards. The successful investigation, assessment of risk, and rehabilitation related to these types of hazards often requires a multidisciplinary team. The integration of this expertise often results in innovative solutions for complex physical mine hazard rehabilitation. Recent rehabilitation project experiences have shown that using various investigation methods can greatly assist in assessing the long term stability and developing an overall property rehabilitation strategy that considers all of the physical mine hazards on a site. Strong coordination between the various disciplines will result in an optimized rehabilitation strategy, avoiding duplication of cost and effort. This presentation will discuss some of the methods of investigation, risk assessments and rehabilitation strategies employed in the successful closure of number of mine hazard projects located within communities and remote locations. There will be a focus on unique rehabilitation strategies that were applied to specific circumstances where standard practices could not be applied.

      • Tue 15:40 - 16:05

        2163: change management over the life of mine: challenges and opportunities for closure residual risks

        Author/Presenter: Jonathan Sanders, | Room: 111

        Mining is a transient industry, with knowledge loss occurring due to poor documentation, staff turnover, and/or the impact of an increasing workforce transitioning to retirement. The loss of corporate knowledge from a mine site is a significant risk that largely remains unmeasured throughout the mining life cycle. Specific to closure, observed impacts include: unfocused goals and objectives; risks and opportunities not identified and managed; limited continual improvement; and diminished trust with key partners/stakeholders. Closure residual risks are described as either tolerable (i.e., site is safe, stable, non-polluting); intolerable, but can be practically reduced to a tolerable level (i.e., requiring remediation); or intolerable (i.e., not practically reduced resulting in long-term legacy). Two types of knowledge are discussed: explicit knowledge that can be easily measured, accessed, and verbalized (e.g., reports, data, and drawings); and tacit knowledge that is undocumented and difficult to communicate or record (e.g., people’s experience, instincts, etc.). This paper discusses key practices used in knowledge transfer over the life of mine that may increase a mine operator’s resilience to change and reduce the potential for long-term closure liabilities. Application of management practices are discussed, relative to project execution and life of mine planning. A group of mining industry professionals from various countries and technical backgrounds, who rely on the outcomes of good knowledge transfer were surveyed to support this study. This paper targets mining industry leaders, specifically those responsible for closure planning and execution.

      technologies to mitigate environmental liabilities

      Session chair : Nadia Mykytczuk

      • Wed 08:30 - 08:55

        2095: biochemical cyanide treatment of gold mine tailings supernatant, without production of ammonia or nitrate: pilot and demonstration trials

        Author/Presenter: Jim Harrington, Monique Simair, Justin Bourne, Vanessa Friesen, Ben Ferris, | Room: 111

        The Kumtor Tailings Management Facility (TMF) has used the INCO SO2/Air cyanide destruction process downstream of the TMF effectively for 20 years. However, ammonia is produced by this process, which can be a challenge for discharge criteria. Therefore, viability of a biochemical cyanide treatment process in the TMF was explored (the “cyanohydrin process”). Unlike many other cyanide destruction methods, this process destroys cyanide without producing ammonia or nitrate. Following preliminary testwork, a series of pilot-scale tests were set up at the mine site in July 2017. Trials consisted of a mixture of new and mature tailings, with varying doses of aldehyde containing sugars and phosphorous; controls were also established. Barrels showed up to >90% removal of total cyanide in 11 weeks (~60 mg/L to <5 mg/L), without production of ammonia or nitrate. Following this, a full-scale cyanohydrin test was undertaken in August 2017, reagents were mixed and dosed in the mill, and tailings deposited into an ~170,000m3 “Isolated Pond” within the TMF. In the four weeks of treatment prior to freezing, WAD cyanide concentrations decreased by ~41% (76 mg/L to 45 mg/L) without affecting ammonia and nitrate concentrations. Kumtor is presently planning to implement the cyanohydrin process full-scale in 2018.

      • Wed 08:55 - 09:20

        2086: removal of redox sensitive selenium from mine waters: towards the trapping of the escapist element

        Author/Presenter: Deepak Kirpalani, Dipti Mohapatra, | Room: 111

        Selenium, a redox sensitive element, has emerged as a major concern in Canada’s mining industry, particularly in areas with rich alluvial soils or in selenium-bearing geologic formations. In mines, selenium exists as a sulfur-substituting element in pyrite (FeS2) minerals. The mobilization of selenate in water, a highly toxic Se species, occurs as selenopyrite (FeSe2) is oxidized by the presence of nitrate (NO3) and the nitrate is “denitrified’. Removal technologies are essential as selenium-rich mine waters cannot be recycled into process operations and impact aquatic life and wild life habitats when discharged. As a result, existing water treatment technologies such as ion exchange, membrane separation and film bioreactors among others, have been adapted to remove selenium. National Research Council of Canada (NRC) has pioneered the development of advanced processes for mine water treatment to address the removal of redox sensitive elements. New cavitation technologies were applied towards the improvement of selenium removal rates, thereby reducing its uninhibited transport to trap selenium from mine waters. In this work, the fate and transport of mobilized selenium, which undergoes an advection-diffusion transport process, only retarded by chemical/biological reduction to immobile species or competitive adsorption to surfaces was examined for existing as well as new and upcoming technologies.

      • Wed 09:20 - 09:45

        2162: development of analytical methods to identify and quantify existing selenium species in waters from canadian mining operations

        Author/Presenter: Paramee Kumkrong, Patrick Mercier, Daniel Tyo, Bussaraporn Patarachao, Cindy Jiang, Judy Kung, Charles Greer, | Room: 111

        The presence of selenium in water from mining activities is a source of concern among environmental regulators. Selenium is present in mine water and tailings mainly as oxyanions (SeO32- and HSeO42-). These species may then be transformed into organoselenium (selenomethionine, selenocysteine), or even converted into gaseous forms (selenocyanide, dimethyldiselenide, dimethylselenide), by microorganisms and other biota before selenium is released into the environment. The development of analytical methods to determine selenium and its species is challenging. As a result, there currently exists no internationally recognized standard reference method for selenium speciation. This conundrum is not only due to the ultralow levels of Se present, but also to the fact that identification of Se species is not trivial. Moreover, each Se species has a different toxicity, which is not yet well understood, especially in the context of the ecotoxicology of Se species arising from mining activities. The identification and quantification of selenium species is normally accomplished by using coupled techniques, i.e. ion chromatography or high performance liquid chromatography interfaced with inductively coupled plasma collision reaction cell mass spectrometry (IC/HPLC-ICP-CRC-MS). At NRC, we are also investigating HPLC coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), as a potential method to detect organic selenium species in mine water. NRC has initiated a project for understanding the forms of Se in mine water and tailings from Canadian operations. This will help industry to identify technologies for waste remediation and water treatment before releasing effluents into the environment. Furthermore, the identification and quantification of selenium profiles in discharge waters from various mining activities will add information needed to enable a rational environmental assessment of the impact of Se arising from Canadian mining operations.  

      • Wed 09:45 - 10:10

        2123: dna barcoding approach to identify benthic invertebrates from a mine site in ontario

        Author/Presenter: Mary Murdoch, Sarah Adamowicz, Janet Topan, Mario Thomas, Nancy Duquet-Harvey, Joe Keene, Mike Johns, Robert Hanner, | Room: 111

        Biomonitoring requires the collection and identification of specimens to establish baseline characteristics of the biological community and track changes over time and space. Taxonomic identification of specimens is currently done morphologically, but several factors can limit accurate morphological identification. DNA-based approaches, like barcoding, offer attractive solutions because they can be automated and are more objective, repeatable, rapid and scalable than morphological approaches. Successful identification using DNA barcoding requires a robust reference library against which the specimen barcodes can be matched. The aims of this study included assessing: 1) the ability to recover DNA barcodes from specimens collected for morphological identification as part of a mine’s monitoring program; 2) the maturity of the existing barcode library in providing matches to the specimens; and 3) the congruence of specimen identifications from morphology and barcoding approaches. Results of this pilot study will be presented along with recommendations for follow-on work, including: development of standardized field collection procedures, improvements to the existing DNA barcode library, and investigation of DNA barcoding as a potential time-saving approach. The presentation will also highlight the potential application of DNA barcoding in biomonitoring conducted to meet legal requirements, such as the federal environmental effects monitoring program.

      closure & rehabilitation

      Session chair : Christopher Cormier, Jean Cayouette

      • Wed 10:30 - 10:55

        2082: the international mine closure and reclamation management planning standard

        Author/Presenter: Paul Steenhof, | Room: 111

        This presentation will overview the technical contents of an International Standard being developed on the topic of Mine Closure and Reclamation Management Planning. The Mine Closure and Reclamation Management Planning project is intended to provide a crucial overarching document for Mine Closure and Reclamation Management Planning along with the requirements or recommendations for Mine Closure and Reclamation Management Planning. The Work Item follows a Life Cycle approach to Mine Reclamation Management Planning with the recognition that planning for mine reclamation must take place throughout the lifecycle of the mine and not just at closure. This covers the main decision points and procedures that need to be considered in planning for mine closure and reclamation, with the standard organized into two parts – the first part provides key requirements, while the second provides general guidance. The standard is organized around the following topic areas: Approaches to reclamation; Reclamation technologies; Reclamation construction; Post-reclamation activities; Financial provisions, and; Documentation and reporting. The objective is that the ensuing standard will help ensure consistency and completeness in terms of the mine closure and reclamation management planning process.

      • Wed 10:55 - 11:20

        2125: abandoned mines site characterizations and clean-up criteria - case studies

        Author/Presenter: Ljiljana Josic, Steve Reitzel, Henri Sangam, | Room: 111

        A lack of mine reclamation policy and regulations prior 1970s resulted in uncontrolled mining activities that historically affected its surrounding environment. The tailings were usually discharged directly to the environment without any containment. The tailings from gold production usually have potential to generate highly acidic drainage that is elevated in aluminum, arsenic, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, and nickel and sulphate salinity. Over the years the tailings would migrated into surrounding environment creating large areas of contaminated soils and sediment. Transport of contaminants of concern associated with the tailings is via a combination of particulate transport of un-oxidised tailings and mobile loadings of acidity, metals and sulphate salinity. These transport processes are most prominent during higher surface water flow that comes with spring freshet / summer rainfall and if water levels drop in the lake and perched groundwater table. Canada has an estimated 10,000 abandoned mines. SNC-Lavalin has completed abandoned mine site characterisation studies to delineate contaminant extent across the sites. Following completion of site characterization, different remedial options were evaluated and a cleanup criterion was established for the site. This paper will discuss Case Studies for site characterization including historic overview of contaminant migration and proposed cleanup for the sites.

      • Wed 11:20 - 11:45

        2011: alternative closure methods for mine openings at remote legacy mines

        Author/Presenter: David Sanscartier, Patty Ogilvie-Evans, | Room: 111

        Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC) is managing the remediation of 37 legacy mines on public land in northern Saskatchewan, Canada on behalf of the Saskatchewan Ministry of the Economy. Sites include openings to the underground that require proper closure to ensure long-term public safety. In Saskatchewan, the legislated requirement is to close openings with a reinforced concrete bulkhead designed by a professional engineer. This is challenging in remote locations with no road access or where access is limited to an ice road for a four- to six-week period during the winter. Since the outset of Project CLEANS, various alternative methods have been implemented successfully: stainless steel caps, boulder covers, waste rock backfills, and polyurethane foam plugs. These methods have gained acceptance from the regulators as safe and durable mine closure methods for remote sites, and are slowly being utilized by other projects in Saskatchewan and in other jurisdictions. In addition to meeting regulatory requirements, the approach selected must meet criteria such as: competitive life cycle cost, sufficient service life, ease of transport, prevent unauthorised access, withstand forest fires, ease of installation, minimal field fitting. This presentation will present the different methods applied by SRC and lessons learned from their application.

      • Wed 11:45 - 12:10

        1981: biochar combinatorics: biochar-tailings compatibility and post-mining ecosystem restoration

        Author/Presenter: Jasmine Williams, Sean Thomas, | Room: 111

        Acid-generating mine tailings introduce pronounced challenges to minesite revegetation. Biochar - the carbon-rich product of biomass pyrolysis - has received increasing attention for this application, and is especially appealing to the mining context due to its recalcitrance and potential for heavy metal sorption. Optimizing the use of biochar for mine reclamation relies on understanding whether nutrient, metal, and water sorption behaviors of biochars are substrate-specific and/or dose-specific and whether certain biochars actually reduce contaminant bioavailability. Investigations into relative biochar-tailings compatibility are lacking in current research, as are field trials. Factorial combinations of mine tailings and biochars were examined in multi-species germination and seedling experiments. These tests revealed marked variation in grass and tree seed germination, seedling survivorship, biomass, and photosynthetic performance among biochar-tailings combinations: certain groupings showed increased germination and survivorship for all species, but others showed neutral to negative results. The most successful biochar-tailings combination inspired a large-scale field trial, on acid-generating goldmine tailings in Northern Ontario (48.2°N, 80.4°W), to observe the role of biochar application doses. Native tree growth and survivorship, heavy metal mobility, and erosion prevalence were monitored for one year. Higher biochar doses increased tree survivorship and overall vegetation cover due to increased nutrient and water availability in addition to reduced metals bioavailability. Results suggest that biochar type and dose may be optimized based on a tailings' physical and chemical properties, and hence introduces great potential for revegetation and decontamination of mining terrain.

      strategies for restoring mine-impacted waters

      Session chair : Julie Champagne

      • Wed 13:45 - 14:10

        2116: implementing a long-term water management strategy for mine closure in northwest british columbia

        Author/Presenter: Michael Dabiri, Charles Masala, Helena Lidhage, | Room: 111

        The Premier Gold Mine, located near Stewart, British Columbia, ceased mining operations in 1998. Since then, closure activities have included stabilization and revegetation of waste rock dumps, treatment of discharge from the underground mine, and upgrades to the Tailings Storage Facility (TSF). This paper focuses on implementation of a long-term water management strategy for the TSF and related components, in a wet environmental, receiving an average of 2,200 mm of annual precipitation. Additional consideration is given to treatment of underground mine discharges and management of the resulting water treatment sludge. Site-specific challenges include ML/ARD from contemporary and historic mining activities on the site dating back to the 1800s, PAG tailings and waste rock, a wet environment subject to extreme storms and high peak flows, in addition to topographic constraints, scarcity of suitable construction materials, and geohazard risks associated with steep, rocky terrain. Sources of ML/ARD for the site were characterized through site-wide hydrologic and water quality modelling assessments, which were used to identify and quantify sources of loading from historic and contemporary mining activities, and assess the impact of proposed water management plans and external influences such as upstream hydroelectric developments, and climate change. Measures implemented to mitigate ML/ARD risks include design and implementation of water and granular covers to prevent oxidation and mobilization of tailings within the TSF, reconstruction of water treatment sludge clarification ponds and spillways to reduce the risk of failure, and development of a long-term water treatment sludge management plan that accounts for the possibility of perpetual water treatment from underground workings. Flood management measures implemented include design and construction of a TSF closure spillway in bedrock, to safely route peak PMF flows in excess of 500 m3/s without mobilizing impounded tailings, as well as upgrades to the tailings dams to reduce the risk of external and internal erosion, such as a granular tailings beach cover, additional riprap protection and a downstream inverted filter berm. Much of the site is characterized by high geohazard risks due to steep, rocky terrain and frequent rockfall. The water management plan was designed to eliminate reliance on diversion channels and access roads that are subject to risk of failure due to rockfall, and to facilitate safe monitoring and sampling in key discharge areas. This includes construction of an upgraded TSF seepage monitoring system allowing safe measurement and sampling of seepage, and scaling and ongoing monitoring of high-risk rock surfaces. Geohazards, steep topography and scarcity of suitable granular materials introduced additional challenges to the design and construction of water management infrastructure. However, the development and implementation of water management solutions of Premier Gold Mine achieved the desired outcomes, by meeting challenges with suitable solutions.

      • Wed 14:10 - 14:35

        2142: improved understating of mine waste weathering and remediation options with microbial community data

        Author/Presenter: Nadia Mykytczuk, Emilia Principe, Nicole Valiquette, Roberta Pedlar Hobbs, Michael Schindler, Thomas Merritt, | Room: 111

        Sulfidic mine tailings harbour a diversity of microorganisms within both the oxidized and reduced zones. Undeterred by the conditions of low pH and high metal content, these organisms interact with minerals on a microscopic level and catalyze the oxidation/reduction of parent materials, the formation of secondary minerals, and subsequently affect the transformation and attenuation of metals. In some instances we can promote these microbially driven reactions to help liberate or stabilize target minerals and elements but understanding the role of specific organisms is challenging without high resolution data. By using a combination of genomics and standard geochemical analytical methods, we provide examples how microbial data can help expand our understanding of mine waste weathering from three different sites around Sudbury, Ontario looking at both tailings and waste rock. Using genomics tools we can better tease apart the biologically driven influences on the direction and rate of change in geochemistry and minerology. As computational tools for extensive genomic information are improving, we can streamline the data to provide a complementary assessment tool to help direct management and remediation options.

      • Wed 14:35 - 15:00

        2136: update on 3 years of successful commissioning and operation of a demonstration-scale constructed wetland treatment system (cwts) at the minto mine, yukon

        Author/Presenter: Monique Simair, Rachel Martz, Bryanna Eisner, Vanessa Friesen, Ryan Herbert, | Room: 111

        The Minto Mine is an open pit and subsurface copper mine located in the Yukon Territory. As part of the Reclamation and Closure Plan a constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) is being designed and implemented through a phased approach. This talk will update on the past 3 years of commissioning and operation of the on-site demonstration-scale CWTS. Throughout the CWTS operational period, treatment achieved average outflow concentrations (dissolved) of: cadmium - 0.0092 ug/L, copper - 17.3 ug/L, molybdenum - 2.3 ug/L, selenium - 0.5 ug/L, and zinc - 1.9ug/L. Additionally, cadmium was often treated to below detection limits, nitrate was treated, and some sulphate treatment was also observed. As designed, treated constituents were transformed into stable minerals within the wetland sediments. Plant uptake of constituents was minimal throughout operation, and a high abundance of beneficial microbes associated with ongoing passive treatment were identified in the CWTS. Importantly, there was no discernible difference in treatment according to temperature (even under ice cover). The CWTS generally operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of ~6 days, however, some constituents achieved a thermodynamic minimum within the system by half this time, suggesting 2 – 4 days HRT would be sufficient for treatment.

      • Wed 15:00 - 15:25

        2129: application of uf/ro for selenium removal in a mine-influenced surface water

        Author/Presenter: Jamie Felicetti, | Room: 111

        Selenium is a naturally-occurring element often found in mine-influenced waters at concentrations orders of magnitude greater than the EPA-recommended chronic dissolved selenium standard of 5 µg/L. These levels pose toxicological concerns due to bioaccumulation in aquatic species. The degree of rejection is contingent on water characteristics, which dictate contaminant speciation. In this work, a full-scale 2.9 MGD open-platform (UF) system was implemented as pretreatment to an RO system for selenium removal from a mine-influenced surface water. With this rack design, the system is compatible with many UF modules. Both the UF and RO systems were also customized to meet the stringent requirements of this project. Multiple concepts are discussed including (1) importance of pretreatment chemistry and contaminant speciation, (2) value of open-platform UF design, with a highlight of project-specific customization, and (3) operational techniques including a unique backwashing strategy to achieve strict final blended selenium concentration below regulatory limits. Both pilot- and full-scale performance data is discussed to further evaluate variance and scalability of project phases.

      • Wed 15:25 - 15:50

        4325: ammonia nitrogen removal in mine tailings water: commissioning and troubleshooting of a moving bed biofilm reactor

        Author/Presenter: Pascal Marcotte, | Room: 111

        Ammonia nitrogen removal in mine tailings water: commissioning and troubleshooting of a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor Various technologies are available for the removal of ammonia nitrogen in mine impacted water. Each of these technologies have their advantages and disadvantages, as well as their limits. Although there is extensive academic work on this subject, limits for such technologies are best determined by the troubleshooting of full-scale applications. This presentation discusses the Various technologies are available for the removal of ammonia nitrogen in mine impacted water. Each of these technologies have their advantages and disadvantages, as well as their limits. Although there is extensive academic work on this subject, limits for such technologies are best determined by the troubleshooting of full-scale applications. This presentation discusses the arious challenges encountered during the commissioning of a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) for a gold mine project in South America. This technology is extensively present in the municipal sector but is still considered a novelty in the mining industry. A brief description of the complete Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) is first discussed. This ETP was designed for WAD cyanides destruction, heavy metals and total suspended solids removal, as well as biological denitrification of nitrates. Following this introduction, the various challenges encountered during the commissioning of the biological reactors of this plant are described, including: presence of ammonia in the feed water, partial nitrification and alkalinity deficiency. The ammonia contamination was resolved by retrofitting the MBBR to promote nitrification. Also, partial nitrification was caused by alkalinity deficiency, but no actions were required due to changes in the bioreactors influent quality. Many lessons can be learned from the commissioning discussed in this presentation. The most significant lesson learned is the importance of designing highly flexible plants with a built-in capacity to be modified and adjusted to changes in feed water. Also, this project demonstrates that a MBBR treatment can be successfully incorporated in a conventional treatment philosophy.

    • leading in safety

      role of leadership in safety

      Session chair : Michael D. Winship

      • Mon 14:00 - 14:25

        4356: j.t. ryan 2017 winner's presentation: goldcorp eleonore mine

        Author/Presenter: Sophie Bergeron, Patrick Chabot, | Room: 121

        One of the goals of the CIM is to share among our members the excellent practices in Safety Risk Management that have been achieved within our member companies. Presentation to come

      • Mon 14:25 - 14:50

        4357: j.t. ryan 2017 winner's presentation: teck, greenhills coal

        Author/Presenter: Geoff Brick, | Room: 121

        One of the goals of the CIM is to share among our members the excellent practices in Safety Risk Management that have been achieved within our member companies. Presentation to come

      • Mon 14:50 - 15:15

        4358: j.t. ryan 2017 winner's presentation: debeers, victor mine

        Author/Presenter: James Kirby, | Room: 121

        One of the goals of the CIM is to share among our members the excellent practices in Safety Risk Management that have been achieved within our member companies. Presentation to come

      • Mon 15:15 - 15:40

        4359: j.t. ryan 2017 winner's presentation: vale, voisey bay

        Author/Presenter: Peter Langlois, | Room: 121

        One of the goals of the CIM is to share among our members the excellent practices in Safety Risk Management that have been achieved within our member companies. Presentation to come

      • Mon 15:40 - 16:05

        4360: j.t. ryan 2017 winner's presentation: mosaic, belle plaine

        Author/Presenter: Jeffrey Price, | Room: 121

        One of the goals of the CIM is to share among our members the excellent practices in Safety Risk Management that have been achieved within our member companies. Presentation to come

      occupational health and hygiene recognizing our challenges

      Session chair : Tanguy Paquot

      • Tue 08:55 - 09:20

        4363: advancing teck resource’s occupational health & hygiene strategy

        Author/Presenter: corrine balcaen, | Room: 121

        Teck has established a comprehensive occupational health & hygiene strategy to reduce or eliminate occupational exposures that could result in occupational disease. A company-wide occupational hygiene standard is in place and comprehensive exposure risk assessments have been performed at all operations, which has provided Teck with a solid exposure risk profile. Prioritized exposure reduction plans are now being implemented. This presentation will portray Teck’s journey to mature its occupational health & hygiene programs.

      • Tue 09:20 - 09:45

        4419: newmont mining corp. health risk management program

        Author/Presenter: Shane Owen, | Room: 121

        Newmont Mining Company’s Health Risk Management (HRM) program is a method to measure and quantify reductions in employee exposures. The company has set an aggressive goal of 10% - 50% exposure reduction for targeted job positons/Similar Exposure Groups (SEGs). This presentation will give a brief review of the HRM program, then go into the controls implemented to achieve reductions. Many of the controls that were implemented were basic controls, such as installing a boot scraper on drills so the operator can clean their boots prior to getting into the cab, or better routing ventilation to remove dust at a core saw.

      • Tue 09:45 - 10:10

        4438: transitioning towards diesel free mines

        Author/Presenter: Frank Crowne, | Room: 121

        Goldcorp’s Borden Gold Mine stands poised to become the first fully electrolyzed mine in Canada. In addition to numerous operational benefits, including a reduction of greenhouse emissions and carbon footprint of the mine, electrification eliminates workplace exposure to diesel particulate matter, an IARC Group 1 carcinogen, along with the associated combustion gases, underground noise levels, whole body vibration, and heat generation. Electrification technologies introduced and trialed at the Borden Mine are also now being leveraged at other Goldcorp mining sites in an overall company strategy to fully eliminating diesel use underground.

      innovation in safety from new technologies

      Session chair : Jonathan Peck

      • Tue 10:30 - 10:55

        2018: health and safety risk modeling through operational data sets; machine learning and a new approach to safety and health management

        Author/Presenter: Pratt Rogers, | Room: 121

        Machine learning has great applicability for risk modeling and management of the modern mine. Mining companies continue to make extensive technological investments in monitoring hardware and software on their mobile and fixed assets and human resources. Many mobile equipment fleets have a fleet management system and sensors tracking equipment health. These sensors provide the location, activity, usage, and many other indicators representing the machines operational state. Much of this data can be used to infer the human behavior of the operator and, to some extent, the maintainers of the equipment. Fixed equipment, commonly found in mineral processing / comminution circuits, also produce large amounts of data. Process data can pinpoint the equipment state, whether a piece of equipment is in a “trouble” mode, down, running, or standby. These states provide information on where equipment is being maintained, time of the day, and type of equipment. Thus, they can provide key insight into the operator and maintainer activities of the plant. While data sets do not track the entire mine site, they can in some cases represent a significant proportion of the work force. Many companies are seeking to extend digitization of their sites through deploying industrial internet of things (IOT) technology. Location, fatigue monitoring and fitness for duty tracking are a common IOT objective of human resource management in mining. Formal health and safety management systems track vast amount of activities and safety events. For instance, when a health and safety event occur (injury, property damage, incident, accident, near miss, violation, etc.) detailed information is captured depending on the severity of the event. Regulatory events such as a reportable injury, lost time incident, or violation are investigated following a standard process. Many mines track none regulatory safety events such as property damages, near-misses, and environmental. In addition, many localized & macro risk assessments are done daily through Field Level Risk Assessment, Take 5, Safe work observations, etc. These tools can provide valuable insight into the risk behavior & environment of a workforce. These siloed data sources can provide key business intelligence of a mine site and are highly underutilized. Machine learning offers a tool which enhances the knowledge discovery potential of the modern mine. A machine learning model is presented built using key operational and safety data of an operating mine. Results of the modeling are presented along with a process to incorporate these tools into health and safety management.

      • Tue 10:55 - 11:20

        4448: tablet capabilities, gamification, and internet of things (iot) applied to situational awareness systems in fms and interactive digital safety forms

        Author/Presenter: Sean Dessureault, | Room: 121

        Smart devices such as iPads and wireless sensors alongside application design elements such as gamification have transformed modern life and are poised to revolutionize the mining industry. Internet of Things (IoT) and Mobile apps have enabled affordable fleet management (FMS) that can use beacons and tablet-to-tablet detection for situational awareness, engaging operator and supervisor feedback, and safety tracking to mines of any size. Several recent innovations in technology and then deployments of innovative IoT nearables for low-cost proximity sensing, as well as apps for collecting digital safety and maintenance forms, has shown that technology cost is no longer a challenge to overcome. They key challenge is changing what people do and the fluid expectations of innovative technology. The challenges and benefits from several deployments of an iPad and IoT-based FMS that has digital forms and uses gamification and other feedback mechanics at different mines throughout the world will be reviewed, alongside emerging technology of low-cost machine health tracking wherein operator behavior can be inferred. A key focus of will be on Conuma Coal’s mines, where safety (and maintenance) workflows have been automated using Big Data approaches. This includes the key challenges facing these technologies such as entrenched existing concepts of the costs of technology, the technology selection process, process change, and the need for focus when using data.

      • Tue 11:20 - 11:45

        2124: an improved approach to collision awareness – an analytical case study

        Author/Presenter: Robert Dunsch, | Room: 121

        As the mining industry strives for a zero-incident workplace, mining organizations are investing in collision awareness systems more than ever before. Several collision awareness systems are available today, all aiming to improve mine safety, but while mining organizations recognize the impacts these systems can have on operator safety, they often face the technological challenges that come from new technologies. One of the key challenges for collision awareness systems is the difficulty to accurately differentiate between real, dangerous events and normal activity. The end result is a system that produces a large number of false positive alarms, desensitizing the end user and eventually causing them to discount any alert sent by the system. This paper will describe a multi-layered filtering approach that reduces the number and frequency of false positive alarms. The general methodology of this approach will be described and then compared against results obtained in the field, based on a large-scale deployed system in an active opencast mine.

      • Tue 11:45 - 12:10

        4310: utilizing a mobile 3d laser scanner in gps denied environments for convergence monitoring applications

        Author/Presenter: Curtis Watson, | Room: 121

        Convergence monitoring is a vital part of the day to day operations of an underground block caving mine site. In addition to using the results from such analyses for production purposes, routine monitoring of the stability of the working areas is vital to ensure a safe working environment for employees. The case study to be presented will show that by using a mobile 3D LiDAR scanner, specifically the uGPS Rapid Mapper©, a site can readily obtain accurate indications of zones of instability from which better remedial decisions can be made. Compared to traditional point to point methods, a mobile 3D LiDAR scanner allows for rapid area to area comparisons of each pillar within the operating area to be analysed on a day to day basis. The case study will focus on data collected weekly since October 2017 at a South-East Asian mine site as part of an operational solution deployment. The presentation will show how the mobile convergence monitoring system can identify movement prior to an actual failure that occurred.

      best practices in risk assessment/risk management

      Session chair : Gord Winkel

      • Tue 14:00 - 14:25

        2160: leading safety everyday: best practices for pre-work hazard identification

        Author/Presenter: Nicholas Flores, Michael Cannon, | Room: 121

        Over the last two years, Mosaic Company's mine site in Carlsbad, New Mexico designed and implemented a novel approach to driving successful hazard identification across all jobs. The secret: making sure people are having the right conversations before (and during) every job to ensure that no hazard goes unnoticed. Sounds easy enough right? Well it wasn't. Join us to hear about the best-practices in both process design and human behavior, as well as other lessons learned along the way, that have helped make the site one where everyone owns safety.

      • Tue 14:25 - 14:50

        4245: nobody gets hurt: implemention of a hurt free approach at kearl

        Author/Presenter: Jason Weibel, | Room: 121

        In 2017, Imperial Oil's Kearl Operations implemented the Hurt-based approach to Safety. The Hurt Free concept shifts away from traditional treatment based reporting standards. The Hurt-based approach to Safety was developed by ExxonMobil and adopted by the ExxonMobil Drilling globally in 2006. Benefits of the Hurt Free approach include: - alignment with the ExxonMobil safety vision of "Nobody Gets Hurt" - consistent description of actual and potential injury severity - alignment with the site priority of caring for people The Hurt Free focus on people not only increased overall site awareness on actual incidents but created a culture that assessed and shared learning from potential incidents. By increasing this awareness the Hurt Free approach contributed to a more positive safety culture across the operation. The Hurt Free journey at Kearl Operations continues as a culture of caring moves closer to a workplace where Nobody Gets Hurt.

      • Tue 14:50 - 15:15

        2091: using process safety management tools to identify and assess tailings hazards

        Author/Presenter: Kathleen Baker, Lianne Lefsrud , Julie Zettl, Renato Macciotta , Michael Hendry , | Room: 121

        Oil sands tailings may not be the typical case study that comes to mind when thinking of Process Safety Management, but there are many aspects of tailings operations that could benefit from the use of these principles to identify and manage hazards. Much work has been focused on the safety and performance of tailings storage and transportation facilities, which has led to increasing safety against catastrophic failures and uncontrolled releases. However, despite this good work, tragic tailings related fatality incidents persist due to loss of containment events near tailings storage and transport facilities. These fatalities illustrate the need for improving hazard identification and management in the vicinity of these facilities. This research uses Process Safety Management tools like Root Cause Analysis, Event Trees and Bow Ties to identify the hazards associated with oil sands tailings operations. These tools were used to analyze hazard inventories from three sources: oil sands tailings safety experts, employees and company incident data. The results were compared to determine common themes, hazards and gaps in controls. Findings from this research will allow for enhancements to the current safety management systems, the development of prioritized action lists and will ideally enhance industry standards.

      • Tue 15:15 - 15:40

        2097: communicating risks across organizations and to contractors

        Author/Presenter: Kathleen Baker, Renato Macciotta, Julie Zettl, Lianne Lefsrud, Michael Hendry, | Room: 121

        Risk communication is the dissemination of information from an organization to its stakeholders. Typically, this is open two-way communication of known hazards from an organization to the public. However, we have identified a gap in the communication of risks within organizations to employees and contractors. Workers are voluntarily exposing themselves to unidentified hazards, sometimes without knowing the risk level. This has recently been illustrated in the oil sands industry after tragic fatalities related to unseen and unknown ground hazards at tailings storage and transport facilities. Thus, in research, we ask: How can we identify and communicate risks not only to workers who interact with these facilities daily but also to contractors who are intermittently exposed? We have conducted interviews with frontline workers, safety advisors, supervisors, leadership and contractors to determine the hazards the workers see on the job site. Responses varied significantly across working groups and experience levels. We will be using traditional risk communication practices to enhance the dialogue regarding risks between workers, contractors and across the organization. We aim to increase the level of familiarity and decrease complacency with the hazards on site through tailings specific training, formal mentorship programs and geohazard databases.

      • Tue 15:40 - 16:05

        4372: leading practices in fatigue management

        Author/Presenter: Glenn Sheppard, | Room: 121

        The risk of operator fatigue and distraction to mining operations can be significant with the potential for fatality and major equipment damage incidents. In support of improved risk management, the Mine Operations Business Unit at Canadian Natural Resources Limited (CNRL) researched the spectrum of available fatigue management systems, approaches and technologies for implementation on their mine site. Canadian Natural’s comprehensive assessment led to the adoption of the so-called Driver Safety System (DSS) with the result that fatigue events have been reduced by more than 80%! The DSS is a non-intrusive driver monitoring system that can detect both fatigue and distracted driving events experienced by equipment operators, and is used in conjunction with worker education, cab alerts and an effective intervention plan. This presentation also offers the mining industry a quantitative and insightful report on the prevalence of operator fatigue incidents, and dimensions the associated risk management exposure to mining operations.

      fatality prevention, a global mining challenge i

      Session chair : Lawrence Watkins

      • Wed 08:30 - 10:10

        4422: fatality prevention: a global mining challenge part 1

        Author/Presenter: Jim Joy, | Room: 121

        Guest speaker: Jim Joy, University of Queensland (visit sponsored by Teck): Controls Based Risk Management (CBRM) and progressing to Critical Controls Management. This promises to be an outstanding session of particular interest to any mining representative engaged in major hazard management. The discussion will cover the role played by controls in the management of major hazards and the development of a system to ensure the controls remain effective. Companies will share their lessons learned from the journey to improve the management of major hazards within the global mining industry.

      fatality prevention: a global mining challenge ii

      Session chair : Geoff Brick

      • Wed 10:30 - 12:10

        4423: fatality prevention: a global mining challenge part 2

        Author/Presenter: Lawrence Watkins, Karen Osadchuk, Neville Plint, | Room: 121

        Guest speakers: Lawrence Watkins, VP H&S Teck - Teck’s Journey in High Potential Risk Control. Karen Osadchuk, H & S Manager DeBeers - Major Hazards Management, Critical Safety Behaviours and the Journey to Zero. Neville Plint, Head of SMI, University of Queensland, Brisbane - Research opportunities to support Controls Based Risk Management. 11:45 to 12:10: Round table question and answer session for the participants. This promises to be an outstanding session of particular interest to any mining representative engaged in major hazard management. The discussion will cover the role played by controls in the management of major hazards and the development of a system to ensure the controls remain effective. Companies will share their lessons learned from the journey to improve the management of major hazards within the global mining industry.

    • practical operations in surface mining

      leadership in mining excellence and innovation

      Session chair : Tom Broddy, Erika Fretheim

      • Mon 14:00 - 16:05

        4361: joined session with mining metarmorphosis

        Author/Presenter: . ., | Room: 119

        See Mining Metamorphosis: Innovation that will Redefine Mining's schedule

      operations updates

      Session chair : Allan Boddy Allan Boddy

      • Tue 08:30 - 08:55

        4255: fort hills mine development – bringing a paper mine into production

        Author/Presenter: Tom O'Brien, | Room: 119

        The Fort Hills Mine design and approvals were originally completed in 2002 by True North Energy and the resulting road into production has been a long and interesting journey. Suncor Energy Inc. is the current operator for the joint venture project on behalf of the ownership partners; Suncor Energy Inc. (53.06% owner), Total E&P Canada Ltd. (26.05% owner) and Teck Resources Limited (20.89 % owner). A mine design update was completed by Suncor during the project development phases (2009-2013) and after receiving project sanction (2013) construction began. Mine construction has progressed as per the project development plan with many of the learnings from Suncor’s 50 years of operational experience in the oil sands adding value to this mega-project. Tailings management, mining equipment selection and procurement strategies are three areas within the mine that have benefitted from Suncor’s experience. With construction complete in late 2017 the project has entered the next phase of its life cycle as a producing oil sands mine.

      • Tue 08:55 - 09:20

        4332: fine tuning: the transition from ramp up to steady state

        Author/Presenter: Eugene Tucker, | Room: 119

        The transition between ramp up and steady state is a significant one. Many forget that this transition involves a significant mental shift from tonnes and production at all costs, to efficient, cost effective production without losing the gains made during ramp up. We will review some of the necessary changes that have enabled Detour Gold to move forward with this transition.

      • Tue 09:20 - 09:45

        4251: integrating tailings removal with mining operations

        Author/Presenter: Michelle Elliott , | Room: 119

        Effective and timely tailings management is imperative to Suncor’s reclamation plan and sustainability. A portion of our currently operating fluid tailings treatment area (DDA1) is located above the ore and must be removed with the advance of overburden operations. Integrating these materials into the overburden removal plan ensures an efficient approach that will reduce environmental impact and that is cost-effective. Safe and productive mining of mixed material with heavy equipment poses complex challenges concerning safe operations, regulatory requirements, schedule integration and final integration of a relatively low strength material into bulk-fill structures.

      • Tue 09:45 - 10:10

        4380: copper mountain- continuous improvement over the past 5 years

        Author/Presenter: Don Strickland, | Room: 119

        This presentation will review Continuous Improvement at the Copper Mountain Mine over the last 5 years, covering both significant improvements in production and costs. The overall Continuous Improvement process will be reviewed, along with examples of specific improvements in technology, systems and management.

      realizing the value in our operations

      Session chair : Bradley Strueby, Bob McCarthy

      • Tue 10:30 - 10:55

        2144: improving turnaround standards for business improvement initiatives and redefining old beliefs at mining sites by applying the lean six sigma day in the life of (dilo) tool

        Author/Presenter: Adan Olivares Castro, Malcolm Arnesen, | Room: 119

        Successful implementation of continuous improvement initiatives relies not only on quantitative analyses and innovative ideas, but also on identifying qualitative variables that impact the turnaround time of implementing change. Because operational barriers in the field are often not reflected in quantitative analyses, the Lean Six Sigma tool ‘DILO’ – A Day in the Life of – was used to understand the current drilling operating model at Teck’s Fording River Operation and to provide qualitative insights into the challenges drill operators encountered. This case study illustrates the methodologies used to apply the outcomes of the DILO to identify opportunities for improvement and engage with operators in deconstructing barriers, creating the necessary buy-in amongst field personnel to implement and sustain drilling improvement initiatives. Key strategies for improving turnaround standards included the engagement of stakeholders on a one-on-one basis to rebuke commonly held beliefs; the need for management to build a culture of operating excellence, creating a common frame of reference; and the bridging of knowledge gaps between engineering, pit supervisors and drillers, with a focus on why it is important to meet expectations. This study provides insights regarding the implementation of an operating excellence initiative to increase drill productivity in the mining industry.

      • Tue 10:55 - 11:20

        4269: operational excellence transformation in a cross-cultural mining environment

        Author/Presenter: Laura Mottola , | Room: 119

        Laura Mottola, M.ENG., P.ENG., ADM.A., CMC President and CEO, Flow Partners, Canada and former Director, Operational Excellence, Sherritt International, Canada SUMMARY Sherritt International has been operating since 1994 in close partnership with Cuba in the Metals Enterprise Joint Venture comprising Pedro Soto Alba mining and mineral processing facilities in Moa, Cuba, Cobalt Refinery Company Inc. (Corefco) refining plant in Fort Saskatchewan, Canada, and International Cobalt Company Inc. (ICCI) sales and marketing outfit based in Nassau, Bahamas. Since February 2016, the Joint Venture has embarked in a transformational program toward Operational Excellence based on Lean Mining, i.e. the application of Lean Thinking to the mining and metals sector. Lean Mining is an operating strategy for improving and sustaining the overall performance of the business through the development of people’s capability to continuously identify non-value added activities (or waste) and implement opportunities for improvement. Starting with an initial mapping exercise of the production system, a cross-cultural team of Cuban-Canadian professionals analysed the flow of material from mine to market and systemically identified waste, analysed root-cases, and developed improvement projects that were executed over a 90-day period. This initial wave of 11 projects realized both tangible as well as intangible benefits to the Metals Enterprise and its people. Since then, the value stream analysis has been extended to the Maintenance, Supply Chain, and Product Logistics functions. This presentation will address the challenges and achievements of this transformation journey that will raise the joint venture to new levels of performance

      • Tue 11:20 - 11:45

        4277: roadmap to the future: surface mining innovation

        Author/Presenter: Mal Carroll, | Room: 119

        This presentation will detail the outcomes of the 2018 roadmapping collaboration lead by the Canadian Mining Innovation Council, focused on surface mining. The presenter will highlight the key focus areas for the surface community going forward, and share insights from his own experience as a large mine operator.

      • Tue 11:45 - 12:10

        1948: a tool for these times - the capabilities of modern mine planning software

        Author/Presenter: Philippe Lebleu, | Room: 119

        Considering the current resurgence in commodity prices, every mining company should concentrate on strategy optimization to ensure that operations move from a cost-focused mindset to one centred on value maximization in order to reap the benefits of the upturn in the mining industry. Recent advances in open-pit strategic mine planning software enable the optimization of intricate mining problems associated with a complex and vast array of parameters and constraints. These programs simultaneously optimize the mining sequence, cut-off grade selection, mining equipment number and capital expenditure to maximize the net present value (NPV) of a project or deliver on corporate goals. These modern techniques should be adopted at the strategic or life-of-mine planning level to ensure mines are developed in the most valuable fashion within the bounds of practical mining. Traditionally, mine planning involves following a series of sequential processes to evaluate the merits of different mine planning scenarios. Typically, a mine plan is produced based on fixed cut-off grades and strives to achieve a primary goal, such as a target mill feed, while maintaining a smooth total material movement to simulate the operation of a pre-determined mining fleet. The mine plan is then used as a basis to calculate equipment hours and numbers. The latter form the input into cost models that calculate mining costs and overall project value. The process is repeated with different assumptions for total material movement, sequencing or cut-off grades. Once the mining engineer driving the mine plan is satisfied that an adequate number of scenarios have been evaluated, the best outcome is selected and used for the rest of the process such as waste dump and stockpile design. The problem with this approach is that the entire process can be time-consuming, sub-optimal from a value perspective, especially when the operation being planned is complex, and heavily reliant on the mining engineer’s understanding of the deposit and their experience. That is why the use of advanced mine planning software is becoming more widespread among mining companies and consultancies. Mixed-integer linear programming processes and advanced algorithms allow rapid evaluation of complex problems and help engineers and management make educated decisions regarding the best mine development or optimization strategy to adopt. The power of advanced mine planning software lies in its ability to achieve multiple targets while respecting a variety of constraints by looking ahead to ensure that the choice of mine development made in the first year of production, for example, does not jeopardize its ability to achieve targets in subsequent years and achieve optimum value. This is a vast improvement from a traditional approach whereby a mine plan is derived one period at a time. Despite the advances in mine planning software, mining practicality still needs to be central to a development strategy. To avoid the “black box” solution effect that cannot be explained by the engineer, it is in the engineer’s best interest to produce multiple scenarios to demonstrate the incremental value generated and help tell the story behind the decision-making process. These are only a few of the many applications of modern mine planning software to maximize project value which underline how useful it is as a tool for mining companies to maximize the value extracted from their active mines or future projects.

      practical application of technology

      Session chair : Sean Ennis, Gene Tucker

      • Tue 14:00 - 14:25

        4292: integration of caterpillar minestar system at mt. milligan

        Author/Presenter: Ray Gelinas, | Room: 119

        Mt. Milligan utilizes the Caterpillar MineStar System for a wide range of services that enhance the day to day operation of the mine. Using the high precision GPS, and onboard communications system, Mt. Milligan has integrated the Dispatch System with its Mine Operations fleet, which has enhanced safety and increased efficiency and productivity. Onsite processes have been developed to aid in drilling, blasting, ore control, material movement/management as well as equipment maintenance. This has allowed Mt. Milligan to turn this insightful data to assist in everyday challenges and opportunities.

      • Tue 14:25 - 14:50

        1977: specific energy as a productivity and wear performance indicator for mining equipment

        Author/Presenter: Tim Grain Joseph, | Room: 119

        The mining industry most commonly uses specific energy as a KPI relative to production, defined as the energy per unit mass of volume moved, whether through drilling, blasting, excavation or haulage. What is not clearly understood that in units of Energy per unit Volume we are actually expressing a scalable constant associated with the specific mining sub-activity in a given geology, such that Nm/m3 is actually units of Pa. This also applies to ground engaging tool (GET) wear such as experienced by bits, picks, teeth, rippers, blades associated with drills, continuous miners, excavator buckets, and dozer implements to name but a few. In this latter case specific energy is defined as the energy per unit volume wear material loss, also with units of Pa; which is also directly proportional to the Vickers’ hardness of the wear material. This paper outlines the application of specific energy as a productivity and wear protection KPI to identify opportunities for mining operations to both understand and account for the energy expended in mining (identifying a minimum energy option) and selecting the most appropriate wear protection materials for GET. Keywords: excavating, crushing, dozing, specific energy, abrasive wear, Vickers’ hardness, wear material selection, KPI

      • Tue 14:50 - 15:15

        4291: hole by hole blasthole loading using orica’s dipplus at gibraltar mine

        Author/Presenter: Shannon Shadoff, | Room: 119

        DipPlus is a system created by Orica that enables complex hole-by-hole blasthole loading based on specific hole conditions. The designs are communicated to the blasters using Wi-Fi enabled tablets and loading progress can be seen in the office in real-time. At Gibraltar Mine, DipPlus was implemented in 2017 to optimize loading based on geological conditions. The system uses conditional loading rules and as-drilled input data to assign loading designs to holes based on their specific characteristics. Implementation of the system required the creation of conditional loading rules based on design standards and setting up systems to utilize as-drilled information on grade and hardness as conditions for loading. Powder truck operators were trained to use tablets to receive loading instructions and how to enter the as-loaded information. Using the information available from DipPlus, visualization of the powder distribution in the ground using as-loaded information is readily available. The block model now contains actual powder factor information allowing better analysis of blast performance. Better control our loading designs has led to more effective powder distribution in the ground, reducing over-blasting of soft material and under-blasting of hard material. As a result of the detailed loading designs, DipPlus has also allowed us to better forecast the powder requirements for blast patterns which assists with blast scheduling and loading resource allocation.

      • Tue 15:15 - 15:40

        2117: increasing productivity and conserving person-hours through automated fuel dispatching at sierra gorda

        Author/Presenter: Miguel Caceres, Devon Wells, | Room: 119

        The fueling process at mines takes working equipment away from production, reducing productivity by hundreds of hours each year. KGHM’s Sierra Gorda mine uses an automated dispatching service – Wenco Fuel Dispatch – to handle fueling of its fleet of 58 Komatsu 930E haul trucks. Through automating its fueling, the mine has increased its average fill volumes from 3,400 litres to 3,900 litres per fuel session, with projections to reach 4,200 litres in the near future. At a burn rate of 260 litres per hour, each truck now stays in production an average of 1.92 hours longer before fueling. Use of automated dispatching has also allowed Sierra Gorda to reduce wait times at fuel stations by 10%, further shrinking unproductive time. Moreover, automated dispatching has enabled the mine to redirect its full-time fueling dispatcher to other tasks, thereby conserving one full-time crew member. This paper discusses how implementation of Wenco Fuel Dispatch contributed to increased production time and more robust productivity at Sierra Gorda mine.

      • Tue 15:40 - 16:05

        2087: return on investment (roi) benefits of fms investment vs. haul truck purchase

        Author/Presenter: Neil Ferreira, | Room: 119

        In 2013, an open-pit copper mining operation in British Columbia, Canada, made the decision to invest in a fleet management system (FMS). After the purchase, the mine compared the potential ROI of implementing the FMS vs. buying an additional haul truck. The ROI calculation was based solely on additional tonnage that could be moved if both shovel hang times and truck queue times were decreased. Baseline data was collected three months after FMS installation, with the FMS’s optimization algorithm disabled. The process was repeated three months later with the optimization algorithm enabled. In this phase, hourly production increased by nearly four percent, which equates to an annual production increase of just over $2,000,000 or the volume of material moved by an additional 1.04 haul trucks. By implementing an FMS and utilizing its optimization capabilities, as opposed to buying an additional truck, the mine experienced a first-year cost savings of more than $4,200,000. The ten-year savings were calculated at almost $5,200,000. This presentation will discuss the mine’s decision-making process, the improvements realized from FMS usage, and the ROI from investing in an FMS vs. a truck.

    • rock mechanics

      open pit & underground mining

      Session chair : Khosrow Aref

      • Mon 14:00 - 14:25

        2146: innovative shotcrete technologies for advancements in underground mining

        Author/Presenter: Nicolas Ginouse, Simon Reny, | Room: 114

        Among the techniques used for ground support in underground mining applications, shotcrete has been used very successfully for many years due to the flexibility, efficiency and robustness offered by the shotcrete process. In parallel, major advancements have been made to improve the mechanical performance, ease of application and equipment over the past two decades. Advancements in shotcrete technology to be covered in this presentation include the development and the use of engineered high performance shotcrete materials for challenging ground conditions, ultra-rapid strength gain shotcrete technology for a shorter development cycle and rebound/dust reduction for optimal shotcrete operations. An overview of each shotcrete technology will be provided including recent advancements completed on the topic and applicable case studies to show how these advancements are paving the way of new possibilities for the mining industry. These new developments have been shown to increase mining productivity while reducing operation/logistic costs, and improving ground support performance and reliability in challenging ground conditions. The intent of this paper is to inspire innovations in underground mining through shotcrete by providing the reader with an overview of recent technological breakthroughs.

      • Mon 14:25 - 14:50

        2115: statistical analysis of wall failures in open pit mines around the world. considerations on failure size, total deformation, velocity, sensitivity and uncertainty using inverse velocity for its prediction

        Author/Presenter: Andrei Torres, Albert Cabrejo, | Room: 114

        After 13 years of experience in the mining industry, GroundProbe systems have measured hundreds of wall failures worldwide, in open pits that vary from small sizes to super-pits, from shallow pits with less than 100 metres depth to more than 1 km, and on different ore types. Regardless this variability, the radar technology has been successful many times in detecting the precursor deformations and generating alarms for opportune evacuation of personnel and mining equipment. In this paper, several variables of the collapse were measured on each wall failure, and then a summary and comparison between all of them is presented, such as: total accumulated deformation, velocity at collapse, velocity ratio, inverse velocity, area and volume. For some of the collapses an analysis of radar incidence angle was performed and corrections applied in order to make a better comparison between different collapse events. This paper extends the research that started between ACARP and GroundProbe (2009-2011) and the research presented at the Slope Stability Symposium in 2013, addressing some of the remaining tasks not undertaken in those previous parts of the research. At the end, the author presents some recommendations to approach the analysis of wall failures, definition of alarm thresholds, considerations when forecasting failure time and correlations between deformation and velocity across different wall failures and ore types.

      instrumentation | stabilisation

      Session chair : Mike Yao

      • Tue 08:30 - 08:55

        1931: effects of fibers on expansive shotcrete mixtures containing calcium sulfoaluminate

        Author/Presenter: Hau Yu, Linping Wu, Wei Liu, Yashar Pourrahimian, | Room: 114

        The mining industry frequently uses shotcrete as ground support. However, there is always a concern on its shrinkage-induced cracking. A possible solution is the use of expansive mixtures to mitigate cracking, but the effects of fibers—common in shotcrete—on expansive mixtures were not well known. To this end, the objective of this paper is to study the effects of various fibers on expansive shotcrete mixtures containing calcium sulfoaluminate cement. In this study, we investigated the influence of fibers based on the parameter changes, such as volume, density, permeable voids, water absorption, splitting tensile strength (STS), and unconfined compressive strength (UCS). We found that fibers decreased water absorption and reduced permeable pore space contents. Also, fibers restrained expansion of mixtures from 28% to 50% as per different types. Moreover, the addition of fibers improved the STS of mixtures from 38% to 57% and the UCS from 16% to 31%, respectively. In summary, these results indicate that fiber additions can control shotcrete expansion properly and improve its durability and mechanical strengths. Furthermore, this study provided preliminary findings on the development of new types of crack-mitigating shotcrete mixtures that contain both fibers and calcium sulfoaluminate cement.

      • Tue 08:55 - 09:20

        2030: case study – maccaferri, paralink high strength geogrid for basal reinforcement

        Author/Presenter: Ravin Nag, | Room: 114

        PROBLEM: During the design and construction of ore stockpile facilities at the Goldex Mine, it was recognized that the ore stockpile pad and associated conveyer infrastructure would be situated over a deposit of soft clay. The proposed stockpile facility called for a 23m high ore stockpile situated on a 10m thick layer of engineered granular fill that contained the conveyer feed hoppers and machinery. The soft foundation clays were incapable of supporting this combined loading. Consolidation of the clay under the applied loads would result in differential and total settlements that would be detrimental to the operations of the mine SOLUTION: The project geotechnical engineers determined that the loading from the stockpile could be supported on the soft clay, provided that a reinforced granular foundation was built to improve the bearing capacity of the clay. A basal reinforcement structure would also control differential settlements, thereby allowing the stockpile infrastructure to settle uniformly. The basal platform was designed to be a minimum size of 65m x 65m. A multi-layer system was explored, which featured 6 layers of an HDPE punched and extruded geogrid. The number of layers required was based upon the low strength of the HDPE. Each layer had to be separated by a layer of compacted gravelly sand engineered fill. Working with Maccaferri Canada Ltd, the designer also investigated the use of Paralink® soil reinforcement, Maccaferri’s high performance polyester geogrid. Due to the physical performance of the grid, it was determined that two layers of Paralink® 600 laid perpendicular to each other, would provide the reinforcement needed. No engineered fill was required between the layers. The Paralink® option resulted in a 60% reduction in the quantity of reinforcement required for the platform. The calculation was done using Maccaferri design software. The reduction in reinforcement also resulted in an increase in the speed of installation, thus reducing the overall cost of the platform. A two week schedule was allocated for the construction of the basal reinforcement platform. This was considered very tight for the multi-layer option. Using 2 layers of the Paralink® 600, the platform was built in 11 days.

      • Tue 09:20 - 09:45

        2065: analysis of ground support stability and monitoring at extensive vug zone at big gossan underground mine, pt freeport indonesia

        Author/Presenter: Fadlan Sinaga, Meiharriko Lubis, Sitorus Eric, Anindito Mahendra, Yali Irab, Daulat Napitupulu, Arjuna Ginting, | Room: 114

        Big Gossan mine is sublevel stoping with paste backfill method which have 20 levels, from 2470/L as the lowest until 3180/L as the highest. As the mine being developed at 2510/L at 2009 UG Geotechnical has found indication of vug zone, rock type is silicified-weak skarn altered, RQD 60-70%, and Q value ranging from 3 to 6. Level 2510 plan to be maintenance area which will be utilized until end of mine. The dimension of vug zone is 7 mL x 11 mW x 24 mH, recommendation given was to install steel sets and fill the first 5 m above of the steel sets with paste. At 2013 failure has occurred which is caused the steel set bent. Geotechnical Dept. conducted analysis using GPR (ground penetrating radar) to conform the actual height of the paste above the steel set, after that it was decided to fill the vugzone full with paste, however this action will increase the load applied on the steel sets. Intensive monitoring is being undertaken since then. The objective of the monitoring is to observe if there is any deformations at the steel sets by using prism and surface laser scanner. The data obtained from 2013 until 2017 show no significant deformation of the steel sets therefore the area is safe to be utilized.

      deep mining geomechanics

      Session chair : Douglas Milne

      • Tue 10:30 - 10:55

        2059: rockbolt support behavior with regard to the rock mass modulus – a parametric study

        Author/Presenter: Doraswamy Raju G, Hani Mitri H, | Room: 114

        Underground openings in deep hard rock mines experience high stress conditions and subject to the mining induced seismicity. The support system selected to support these openings should ensure their long-term stability and safety, as some of these openings must remain functional during the life of a mine plan. The stability of a mine opening is influenced by many factors, most notably nearby stoping activities and the distance between the drift and production stopes, apart from the rockmass strength and the performance of the intended support system. Thus, the evaluation of support performance under a particular rockmass condition is important. In this study, numerical modeling is performed to evaluate the support performance in the drift of a deep mine under different rockmass modulus (E). This paper explains the parametric study conducted to evaluate the performance of the drift support system under different rock mass modulus while keeping all the other rockmass properties and geomining conditions constant. In order to perform this analysis a nearby stope sequencing also simulated to record the support behavior. The various values of “E” used in this analysis are 40GPa, 50GPa, 65GPa and 100GPa. The value of 65 GPa being the original tested value.

      • Tue 10:55 - 11:20

        2063: proposed new multiple split tube testing method for dynamic ground support used in highly fractured ground

        Author/Presenter: Greig Knox, Adrian Berghorst, | Room: 114

        There are several ground support products designed for use in seismically active mines to absorb energy by means of steel deformation between multiple anchors. In highly fractured ground, it is possible that multiple segments of a single rock bolt will simultaneously be loaded during a dynamic event. Accepted laboratory based dynamic testing configurations are; the Continuous Tube and the Single Split Tube tests. The Continuous Tube is designed to test a tendon from the washer to the first anchor point, whilst the Single Split Tube tests a tendon between two selected anchor points. The problem with discrete testing methods is, they do not always test the entire bolt. Therefore, a new testing configuration has been devised whereby a split is introduced between each anchor pair along the entire rock bolt and the loading is applied to the washer. The purpose of the Multiple Split Tube test is to attempt to more accurately simulate the expected loading of the complete length of rock bolt in highly fractured ground. Since this new testing configuration loads the entire length of the bolt, an increase in the ultimate absorbed energy and deformation have been noted when compared to traditional split tube tests.

      • Tue 11:20 - 11:45

        4226: de-stress blasting strategy: case studies for mining in highly stressed sill pillars at vale’s ontario operations

        Author/Presenter: Mike Yao, Anneta Forsythe, Reddy Chinnasane, | Room: 114

        Vale Canada Limited has been operating underground mines in the Sudbury basin for over a century. The maturity of the operations is reflected in the amount of ore that has been mined and the number of associated sill pillars which have been formed in various orebodies. Sill pillars, or diminishing pillars, experience a significant increase in mining induced stress that has resulted in extensive seismicity, including some major seismic events. A large number of mitigation strategies, including both strategic and tactical control measures, have been developed at Vale’s Ontario Operations to manage and control the risks associated with high stress conditions and seismicity in these pillars. This paper will focus on destress blasting, one of the tactical ground control measures, that is used to reduce high stress concentrations in selective sill pillar geometries. Four case studies, including three in the 100/900 orebodies at Copper Cliff Mine with the open stoping mining method, and one in the 153 orebody at Coleman Mine with both the overhand and underhand cut and fill mining method, are presented in this paper. These case studies demonstrate the de-stress blasting program that was executed in two different sill pillars to divert increased stress conditions away from active workings towards the abutments of the orebody. Specific topics, including de-stress blast design, an evaluation of blasting efficiency, de-stressing effectiveness, field monitoring results and lessons learned, are also discussed in this paper.

      innovations in rock mechanics

      Session chair : Ferri Hassani

      • Tue 14:00 - 14:25

        2019: handheld mobile laser scanning in potash mines: an evaluation of the zeb-revo

        Author/Presenter: Angus Errington, Kyle O'Brien, Richard Walker, | Room: 114

        Terrestrial, tripod based, laser scanning has been used for almost a decade in potash mines operated by Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan Inc. One of the primary uses of this technology underground is for closure and deformation measurement. Due to the nature of the ore body, as well as the depth of the mining horizon, closure rates in excess of 0.3 mm/day are possible. The typical method of surveying an area with a tripod based laser scanner is labour intensive and time consuming. Although deformation measurements are possible to the sub-centimetre level this accuracy is not always required. An alternative to traditional tripod based laser scanner measurements is provided by the ZEB-Revo which is a handheld mobile mapping device. The ZEB-Revo is based upon a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) algorithm and hence does not rely upon GPS updates. The paper presents some initial evaluations of the ZEB-Revo handheld laser scanner in under- ground potash mines. The data is compared to typical tripod based point clouds for the purposes of deformation measurement and volume estimation. It is shown that the ZEB-Revo produces consistent point clouds of suitable accuracy for many deformation monitoring and volume estimation tasks.

      • Tue 14:25 - 14:50

        2031: case histories of reinforced slopes using marginal fills and draining geogrids

        Author/Presenter: Ravin Nag, | Room: 114

        A marginal fill that contains high silt and / or clay content can generate excess pore water pressure in a structure. As a result, free draining granular soils are traditionally used for the design and construction of reinforced soil structures. However, high quality granular backfill can be expensive especially if sourced from a long distance. Prior research and long-term project successes have proven that marginal soils can be effectively used in the construction of reinforced slopes when an adequate drainage system is incorporated within the structure. The paper describes a combined reinforcement and drainage geogrid, with the commercial name Maccaferri ParaDrain. This draining geogrid is comprised of a network of longitudinal and lateral strips. A longitudinal strip consists of high-tenacity polyester yarns with polyethylene sheathing, and is profiled into a channel capped by a geotextile. This creates a drainage channel on the surface of each longitudinal strip of the geogrid, which facilitates the consolidation and dissipation of pore water pressure rapidly. Four reinforced soil projects using marginal soils are presented in the paper. The first project is the construction of two large storm water detection ponds, 140 meters by 40 meters each. Due to the size of these ponds and excavation required, import of granular soils is very expensive. In addition, disposal of excavated clayey material from the pond would incur significantly higher costs. The option to design and construct 2:1 reinforced slopes using on-site excavated native soils and draining geogrids was selected and approved. The second project is the construction of 4.2m high, 104m long, 60-degree vegetated reinforced slopes. The original design was to deploy six layers of reinforcement geogrid at 4m length, and 0.7 meter spacing and use quality granular fills. However, no source of suitable granular soils is available on or near the site. A redesigned reinforced slope using on-site sandy silt soils that were being wasted from nearby sites and draining geogrid was proposed and approved. The third project is the construction of MSE berms in a landfill perimeter to increase the waste storage capacity. Clay backfill and draining geogrids were utilized to construct the MSE berm. The fourth project is in an infrastructural project that will expand a road through a wetland. The traditional method of soil removal and replacement with a crushed rock road-base was not permitted in this environmentally sensitive area. Instead the project could only proceed if the soil horizon would have minimal disturbance and the integrity of the wetland and aquifer would be kept in-tact. A basal reinforcement pad was created, and was pre-loaded using a surcharge from native material and draining geogrids. The choice of the draining geogrid permitted the use of onsite native soils to build the preload area. The use of the draining geogrid design saved an estimated $5 Million to the alternative traditional methods

      • Tue 14:50 - 15:15

        2049: ground-breaking development in rock bolt sensor (rbs) technology

        Author/Presenter: Yves Quenneville, Silvio Kruger, Zhigang Sun, Andriy Plugartyr, Roger Lacroix, | Room: 114

        Every year, hundreds of millions of rock bolts are installed to support and stabilize mines. As mining operations are pushed ever deeper, the need for rock bolt and ground condition monitoring is becoming increasingly important for improved safety and operational efficiency. However, a Techno Economic Analysis performed by the National Research Council (NRC) has shown that today’s rock bolt sensors have inherent drawbacks that impact their use and deployment. In response to this challenge, NRC has developed a revolutionary and economical rock bolt sensor that uses ultrasonic technology. It is designed to be deployed in large numbers to form a real-time monitoring network. These proprietary sensors provide extensive information on: bolt conditions; stress from initial load up to rupture; bolt sectional loading; elastic and plastic deformation and more. In this presentation, we will review NRC test results of RBS technology in actual mining conditions. We will also explore how this technology provides invaluable information to ground control engineers, either by itself, or in combination with other technologies. Finally, we will envision the use of RBS for operation planning, ground stress trend analysis and modelling.

      • Tue 15:15 - 15:40

        2139: innovative solutions for mine highwall instabilities

        Author/Presenter: Trevor Ames, | Room: 114

        There is a balance between safety and economic viability as mines get deeper and continue to experience slope stability issues throughout the mine life. Engineering controls are an effective means to guard against rockfalls, unstable ground, and challenging geologic conditions. When we look at contributing factors towards hazards related to ground instabilities, we find most hazards can be managed with effective and updated ground control plans that include appropriate engineering controls. These factors include: 1) Modifications to mine designs and plans accounting for updated geological information, including rock mass properties and highwall geometry. 2) Vibration and wall control blasting techniques that can adversely affect ground stability over time. 3) Compounding ground stability issues contributing factors are due to precipitation, ground water, and weathering and erosion that can accelerate ground instabilities along highwalls. Using engineering controls such as slope reinforcement and rockfall containment systems can be a viable solution to safeguard your operation. The presentation will include case studies of successful highwall remediations including a recent 300,000-ton large-scale wedge failure that occurred in early 2017.

      rock engineering risk

      Session chair : John D. Unrau

      • Wed 08:30 - 08:55

        2111: a new device to measure geotechnical slope deformations in mining and civil applications

        Author/Presenter: Albert Cabrejo, Luis Tejada, Fernanda Carrea, | Room: 114

        Current geotechnical measuring devices comprise prisms, radars, InSAR and scanners for surface deformation. The type of measurements could be divided into geotechnical and production applications, being the geotechnical applications more focussed risk management. Robotic stations are currently an affordable tool, but it requires the continuous maintenance of prisms. Laser scanners provide good coverage, but they struggle measuring with geotechnical-like quality, as radars do very efficiently. At the top of the range tools one can find the radars, which are very effective at measuring submillimetre deformations but the price could be prohibitive for some small operations and many civil applications. GroundProbe has identified a gap in the market. A tool that is cheaper than radars but more accurate than robotic stations and laser scanners would be very useful. Such a system would allow a significant improvement in safety in small operations. In this paper the Geotechnical Monitoring System (GMS) developed by GroundProbe is introduced through a case study in Perú, where the first of these new devices has been installed and tried. In it we discuss the characteristics of the system, the use in the Peruvian mine site, advantages and limitations and some examples of the results obtained on the field.

      • Wed 08:55 - 09:20

        2171: analytical approach for predicting the shear resistance contribution to a rock joint by a grouted rock bolt

        Author/Presenter: Yuzong Li, Dwayne Tannant, Caihua Liu, | Room: 114

        An analytical model is developed to predict the contribution of a fully grouted rock bolt to the shear resistance of a joint. The model includes a combination of tensile and shear loading. In the model, the transverse deformation section of a rock bolt installed across a joint is taken as a statically indeterminate beam, and an algorithm for calculating the transverse deformation length of the rock bolt under shearing is proposed. A parametric investigation is carried out to evaluate the effect of the anchoring parameters such as the bolt diameter, the rock mass strength, and the bolting angle on the shear resistance contribution of the rock bolt. A comparison is made between laboratory shear test results and the results of this new analytical prediction method as well as other existing analytical predictions proposed by previous studies. The comparison shows that the theoretical results presented in this paper are in good agreement with the experimental results, and provide a better prediction of the shear resistance provided by rock bolts. The effect of different distributions of the reaction force between the bolt and the grout is also discussed. The analytical method can be used to improve the design of support for the reinforcement of jointed rock masses.

      • Wed 09:20 - 09:45

        2182: investigation of bolted steel mesh support using dem

        Author/Presenter: Cong Xu, Dwayne Tannant, | Room: 114

        This paper presents a numerical investigation of bolted steel mesh supporting unstable rock blocks using the discrete element method (DEM). The open-source discrete element software YADE is used for modelling. The modelling considers various failure mechanisms involving a single unstable rock block such as planar sliding, wedge sliding, and toppling. The unstable rock blocks are simulated by particle elements that are clumped together. The rest of the rock face is modeled by triangular facet elements. The rock block models are calibrated to match the density, friction angle, Young’s modulus, and shape of rock blocks. The size of the unstable rock block ranges from 1 to 2 m, and various rock blocks shapes are considered. The steel mesh holding the rock block is modelled by placing one particle at each node (overlap of steel wires) of the mesh and applying an interaction relationship between the particles to handle the tensile behaviour of the steel wire. The mesh model is calibrated using published tensile and punch test data. The effect of the rockbolt plates is modelled by fixing the movement of ‘mesh’ particles that directly contact the plates. The modelling considers the commonly used square and diamond rockbolting patterns and considers different rockbolt spacing. This research studies the ability of bolted steel mesh to retain an unstable rock block by tracking the force and deformation of the rock block and steel mesh. The configurations in the models allow the rock block to slide and topple under gravity, as well as other external loads. The resulting deformation of the steel mesh, support pressure provided by the mesh, and the load transfer mechanisms between the mesh and the rock bolts are shown. This research also provides suggestions to improve the design of rock stabilization with bolted steel mesh systems.

      • Wed 09:45 - 10:10

        2135: rock mechanics measurements using video monitoring

        Author/Presenter: Amy DiRienzo, | Room: 114

        Dynamic, high-quality measurements of displacements can be made in real-time using video monitoring, even in situations that do not allow access or instruments. Video monitoring uses pattern-recognition technology (i.e. digital image correlation) to track displacements within recorded videos and has a measurement resolution and accuracy equivalent or better than conventional instruments. This emerging technology is versatile and has been successfully applied to a wide range of rock mechanics problems in underground mines. After a roof-mounted conveyor pulley assembly in a salt mine fell due to bolt failure, a video monitoring investigation was completed to characterize the displacements the pulley assemblies and conveyor drives undergo during startup and typical operation. The displacement measurements were used to schedule maintenance and improve the startup procedure of the drives. In another case study, the deflection of a salt bridge with a speed and load limit was measured to determine if the limits were appropriate. The technology is also being developed as a ground-hazard warning system. The system can automate video collection and processing to export mine displacement measurements remotely. Tests have been performed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), the former Homestake Gold Mine, and at an active potash mine in New Mexico. Multiple cameras, each capable of monitoring a 100-meter length of mine drift, have demonstrated a measurement resolution of 0.1 mm. The advantages of video monitoring over rock mechanics instruments (e.g. closure poles or extensometers) are that video monitoring provides numerous measurement points, the measurement points can be added or relocated after the video is recorded and the displacements can be post-processed, and the system is unobtrusive.

    • exploration and mine geology

      best practices in qa/qc and in geochemistry

      Session chair : Serge Perreault, Andy Randell

      • Tue 08:30 - 08:55

        4447: predicting metallurgy using hyperspectral data: case studies of improved processing and increased recovery

        Author/Presenter: Britt Bluemel, Brigette Martini, Ronell Carey, | Room: 115

        Technological advances in the past decade now allow continuous mineralogy measured with hyperspectral core imaging on a scale and at a speed that have been previously unimaginable. Quantifiable and precise mineralogical identification of core, chips, soils, and other geological materials, from borehole to deposit, is now a reality. Our ability to provide near real-time mineralogy on-site in operational environments improves as the technologies of data storage and processing speed increase. Application of hyperspectral scanning technology makes deposit-scale petrographic studies possible by providing quantifiable outputs that confirm observations commonly made regarding zonal arrangement of alteration in ore deposits and can refine and provide new insight into hydrothermal processes and exploration models. Diagnostic absorption features related to molecular scale chemistry and mineral structure are detected and measured in the spectral signatures derived from these high spatial and spectral resolution hyperspectral imaging systems. Spectral classification and mineral identification algorithms analyse each spectral pixel (of which there are ~200,000 per meter of imaged core material) and compare the response to an established mineral library. The identification algorithms classify each pixel, establishing the presence of one (or more) mineral species and determining the relative abundance of the minerals present, which is then used to produce visual mineral abundance maps as well as numerical abundance logs. Chemical composition and crystallinity parameters can be calculated for specific mineral groups by analyzing spectral absorption features at particular wavelengths. Metallurgical samples are very costly, and therefore are collected sparingly throughout the orebody and surrounding altered wallrock, however, the behavior of alteration minerals in the processing system can make the difference between economic and non-economic operations. Utilizing continuous, widespread mineralogical data, collected in advance of production, we can predict the value-modifiers of a resource (hardness, grindability, acid consumption), scale sparse and/or fine resolution analysis from single samples up through entire boreholes and across a deposit and fine tune the sorting and scheduling to optimize the recovery, and therefore value, of an orebody.

      • Tue 08:55 - 09:20

        2023: selection bias: how poor homogeneity steals ounces from your resource estimate

        Author/Presenter: Lynda Bloom, Mohan Srivastava, | Room: 115

        “Selection bias” is used to describe systematic inaccuracy that creeps into statistical studies when samples are not selected randomly, a common situation in mining studies. Prime examples include selection of samples focused on higher grades for check assays, screened metallics or a second fire assay for gold. In cases of poor homogeneity, the second set of assays will tend to report lower grades. Although the problem is pervasive, it is poorly understood or, worse, not even recognized. Good projects can be stalled by the false belief that the mineral resources are smaller than they actually are. This presentation aims to make the problem better recognized so that project development decisions can be improved. Following discussion of a commonly-used example of selection bias, a study of air force pilots, the presentation examines causes of selection bias in minerals projects, with a focus on gold projects where a few flecks of gold, literally barely parts per million, causes large variation in sub-samples. Three case studies of assay data from different mining projects highlight various aspects of how selection bias arises, and how it can easily lead to poor project development decisions.

      • Tue 09:20 - 09:45

        4435: advances in exploration geochemistry: a summary from exploration 17

        Author/Presenter: Hugh de Souza, | Room: 115

        Exploration 17 is a unique meeting held every 10 years in Toronto that surveys successes in Mineral Exploration and highlights promising new technologies. Plummeting discovery rates over the last decade have thrown into question the use of convention techniques particularly for the discovery of deposits under cover. Paul Agnew’s plenary talk proposed detailed evaluation of existing data sets augmented by new data from low detection limit geochemistry, portable, real time technologies, spectral techniques and the use of mineral chemistry as a fertility and vectoring tool. These approaches were discussed in more detail by specialists in the Geochemistry and Analytical Methods sessions and elsewhere. The Methods session highlighted developments in ICP-MS technology and their role in gold discoveries in the Yukon. Low level ppt Au in groundwaters for the exploration of deeply buried ore bodies and the application of isotopes in mineral exploration to delineate process may be less used but technical developments are making their application easier. In the other session the advantages of molar element ratio lithogeochemical analysis were reviewed and there was a look forward to where geochemistry needs to advance over the next decade.

      • Tue 09:45 - 10:10

        4444: qa/qc programs are about more than just blanks and standards

        Author/Presenter: Todd McCracken, | Room: 115

        When people consider QA/QC programs, they think about geochemistry and the insertions of blanks, duplicates and standards into the sample stream. Yet even now, so few people consider the results of these QA samples during the program and how to run an effective QC program. With this in mind, what QA/QC program is in place during the data collection? In fact quality assurance and quality control needs to take place through the exploration cycle. The integrity of the data collection that leads to the geochemistry samples is paramount as it is also part of the building blocks for any successful project. The presentation will review various data collection and storage methods as well as examine QA/QC programs that can be implemented for drill collar and down-hole surveys. Closing out the presentation will be an assessment of specific gravity methodologies available and some QA procedures that can be implemented.

      the challenge of ore grades reconciliation

      Session chair : Todd McCracken

      • Tue 10:30 - 10:55

        2174: prediction of uncertainty in tabular vein deposit resources

        Author/Presenter: Dhaniel Carvalho, Clayton Deutsch, | Room: 115

        The position, thickness, and grade of vein deposits all contribute to resource and reserve uncertainty. The traditional methodology of creating a solid model then estimating grade does not permit a complete assessment of resource uncertainty. Simulated grades within a fixed solid model also does not give a realistic assessment of uncertainty. A comprehensive modeling workflow is proposed for tabular vein deposit resource uncertainty assessment. Position is simulated relative to the plane of continuity. Thickness is simulated relative to position. Grade is simulated within the vein geometry following appropriate local coordinates. Practical details are presented. Intersections from drill holes that are not perpendicular to the plane of continuity are handled by a data imputation framework. Flexible facet and tetrahedra-based grids are demonstrated. Multiple realizations are used for resource calculation, engineering design and assessment of the value of information for possible additional drilling. A case study is shown with data from a hydrothermal vein gold deposit.

      • Tue 10:55 - 11:20

        4411: reconciliation - harder than it looks!

        Author/Presenter: Michael O'Brien, | Room: 115

        The word 'reconciliation' can mean very different things to different people in the mineral industry. The views of an exploration geologist compared with the views of a process engineer, will be very different. The views off a mining economist will be very different from either of the previous persons. The processes constituting the mining value chain are an unholy amalgam of engineering, chemistry and geoscience. The philosophies of the disciplines contributing to mineral extraction are distinct and frequently not aligned. Little wonder that there are frequent disagreements on how to measure the effectiveness of the overall mineral exploitation process. In addition to discipline-specific bias, there is psychology. The attitude of people participating in a reconciliation exercise is greatly influenced by their relative positions in the organization and vested interests. 'Blame games' are a frequent result as different people attempt to deflect any potential criticism, even if it means pointing a finger at some other hapless member of the team. The phrase 'the search for the guilty and the punishment of the innocent' is a cynical but real outcome of a situation where senior management demand 'no surprises' while the nature of most deposits results almost inevitably in some form of unpleasant surprise, the more data becomes available. So how can the 'surprises' be minimized and reconciliation become a tool for process improvement rather than a blunt instrument to push the innocent and obscure the facts? An holistic approach must be harnessed to involve the key disciplines in an honest and fruitful dialogue to measure and improve the jobs that need to be done. Senior management need to commit to such a process and create secure environment where honesty trumps the search for scapegoats. This is easier said than done, but from an early stage, break the silos of geoscience, mineral processing and mining engineering and create dialogue.

      • Tue 11:20 - 11:45

        4262: the value of production reconciliations

        Author/Presenter: Christopher Davis, | Room: 115

        Production reconciliations are becoming increasingly common for mining companies. They provide an unbiased and objective assessment of the effectiveness and performance of technical, mining and milling processes of an operation. They compare predictions or estimates to actual measured production and are an objective method to assess and validate technical and operational assumptions by comparing the outcomes (production) against forecasts for tonnes, grades and metal produced over consistent volumes and time periods across the major steps of an operation. Production reconciliations are necessary and valuable to a mining company since they serve as a basis for improvement of geology, mining and milling processes, provide an insight into how the current forecasts may become realized (or not) in the future, highlight improvement opportunities, facilitate a change to current practices, assess the confidence in a company’s mineral resources and mineral reserves used in strategic planning and the life of mine plans (LoMP) and provide valuable information supporting the auditing process conducted for bank financing and security exchanges. In 2016, the Vale Base Metals Resource Management Group established a standardized F Factor production reconciliation process across the laterite mining, underground mining and open pit operations to improve the reporting, tracking and understanding of ore and product movements. This powerful tool is becoming part of the regular Vale Base Metals work routine and will be used by leadership as a regular mechanism to identify and address technical issues or problems associated with geology, engineering, mining and processing processes and assumptions. The Vale Base Metals production reconciliations are completed quarterly with each Operation’s report results review as a rolling 4 quarter average to monitor if processes are within control and without a systematic bias. Out of control processes or systematic biases are investigated and corrective actions taken, which leads to continuous improvement initiatives. Examples of the value of production reconciliation using actual data will be outlined in this presentation.